Photosynthesis pp 115-136 | Cite as


  • Roland Douce
  • Hans-Walter Heldt
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 9)


Photorespiration results in the light-dependent uptake of O2 and release of CO2 Oxygenationof Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, an unavoidable process, leads to the production of glycolate-2-P. The recycling of glycolate-2-P into glycerate-3-P via the photorespiratory cycle (C2 cycle) requires a large machinery, consisting of more than 15 enzymes and translocators, distributed over three different organelles, i.e. the chloroplast, peroxisome and mitochondrion. Complex compartmentation is an essential trait of photorespiration. The most fascinating reaction in the C2 cycle occurs in the mitochondria when glycine molecules formed in the peroxisomes are broken down by a complex of proteins (H-, P-, T- and L-proteins) which by concerting their activities, catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation (glycine decarboxylase) and deamination of glycine with the formation of CO2, NH3 and the concomitant reduction of NAD+ to NADH. The remaining carbon of glycine is transferred to tetrahydropteroyl polyglutamate (H4PteGlun or folate) to form CH2H4PteGlun. The H-protein plays a pivotal role in the complete sequence of reactions since its prosthetic group (lipoic acid) interacts successively with the three other components of the complex and undergoes a cycle of reductive methylamination, methylamine transfer and electron transfer. The availability of folate to glycine decarboxylase and its recycling through serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) reaction is a critical step for glycine oxidation during photorespiration. Numerous shuttles exist to support transamination, ammonia refixation and the supply or export of reductants generated or consumed (via malate-oxaloacetate shuttles) in the photorespiratory pathway. A porin-like channel which is anion selective, represents the major permeability pathway of the peroxisomal membrane. It is tempting to parallel the accumulation of Rubisco in the stroma of the chloroplast with the accumulation of glycine decarboxylase in the matrix of mitochondria because both enzymes reach millimolar concentrations.



flavin mononucleotide


glutamate:glyoxylate amino transferase


tetrahydropteroyl polyglutamate


glycerate-3-P: Rubisco—ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase




serine:glyoxylate amino transferase


serine hydroxymethyltransferase


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andrews TJ and Lorimer GH (1978) Photorespiration-still unavoidable? FEBS Lett. 90: 1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asada K (1992) Ascorbate peroxidase—a hydrogen peroxide-scavenging enzyme in plants. Physiol Plant 85: 235–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bainbridge G, Madgwick P, Parmar S, Mitchell R, Paul M, Pitts J and Keys AJ (1996). Engineering Rubisco to change its catalytic properties. J Exp Bot 46: 1269–127Google Scholar
  4. Banjoko A and Trelease RN (1995) Development and application of an in vivo plant peroxisome import system. Plant Physiol 107: 1201–1208CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Becker TW, Perrot-Rechenmmann C, Suzuki A and Hirel B (1993) Subcellular and immunocytochemical localization of the enzymes involved in ammonia assimilation in mesophyll cells and bundle sheath cells of maize leaves. Planta 191: 129–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beevers H (1979) Microbodies in plants. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 30: 159–193Google Scholar
  7. Belanger FC and Ogren WL (1987) Phosphoglycolate phosphatase: purification and preparation of antibodies. Photosynth Res 14: 3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bertoni GP and Becker WM (1996) Expression of the cucumber hydroxypyruvate reductase gene is down-regulated by elevated CO2. Plant Physiol 112: 599–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Besson V, Rébeillé F, Neuburger M, Douce R and Cossins EA (1993). Effects of tetrahydrofolate polyglutamates on the kinetic parameters of serine hydroxymethyltransferase from pea leaf mitochondria. Biochem J 292: 425–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Besson V, Neuburger M, Rébeillé F and Douce R (1995) Evidence for three serine hydroxymethyltransferase in green leaf cells. Purification and characterization of themitochondrial and chloroplastic isoforms. Plant Physiol Biochem. 33: 665–673Google Scholar
  11. Blackwell RD, Murray AJS, Joy KW and Lea PJ (1987) Inhibition of photosynthesis in barley with decreased levels of chloroplastic glutamine synthetase. J Exp Bot 38: 1799–1809Google Scholar
  12. Blackwell RD, Murray AJS, Lea PJ, Kendall AC, Hall N.P, Turner JC and Wallsgrove (1988) The value of mutant unable to carry out photorespiration Photosynth Res 16: 155–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bourguignon J, Neuburger M and Douce R (1988). Resolution and characterization of the glycine cleavage reaction in pea leaf mitochondria. Properties of the forward reaction catalyzed by glycine decarboxylase and serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Biochem J 255: 169–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bourguignon J, Macherel D, Neuburger M and Douce R (1992) Isolation, characterization, and sequence analysis of a cDNA clone encoding L-protein, the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component of the glycine cleavage system from pea-leaf mitochondria. Eur J Biochem 204: 865–873CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bourguignon J, Vauclare P, Mérand V, Forest E, Neuburger M and Douce R (1993). Glycine decarboxylase complex from higher plants: Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and mass spectrometry analyses of the T-protein. Eur J Biochem 217: 377–386CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bourguignon J, Mérand V, Rawsthorne S, Forest E and Douce R (1996). Glycine decarboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes share the same dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase in pea leaf mitochondria: Evidence from mass spectrometry and primary structure analysis. Biochem J 313: 229–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bunkelmann J and Trelease RN (1996) Ascorbate peroxidase: A prominent membrane protein in oilseed glyoxysomes. Plant Physiol 110: 589–598CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chamnongpol S, Willekens H, Langebartels C, van Montagu M, Inze D, and van Camp W (1996) Transgenic tobacco with a reduced catalase activity develops necrotic lesions and induces pathogenesis-related expression under high light. Plant J 10: 491–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cheng SH, Moore BD, Edwards GE and Ku MSB (1988) Photosynthesis in Flavaria brownii, a C4-like species. Leaf anatomy, characteristics of CO2 exchange, compartmentation of photosynthetic enzymes, and metabolism of 14CO2 Plant Physiol 87: 867–873Google Scholar
  20. Chollet R and Ogren WL (1975) Regulation of photorespiration in C3 and C4 species. Bot Rev 41: 137–179Google Scholar
  21. Cleland WW, Andrews TJ, Gutteridge S, Hartman FC and Lorimer G (1998) Mechanism of Rubisco: The carbamate as general base. Chem Rev 98: 549–561CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cohen-Addad C, Pares S, Sieker L, Neuburger M and Douce R (1995) The lipoamide arm in the glycine decarboxylase complex is not freely swinging. Nature Struc Biol 2: 63–68Google Scholar
  23. Day DA, Neuburger M and Douce R (1985a) Biochemical characterization of chlorophyll-free mitochondria from pea leaves. Aust J Plant Physiol 12: 219–228Google Scholar
  24. Day DA, Neuburger M and Douce R (1985b) Interactions between glycine decarboxylase, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the respiratory chain in pea leaf mitochondria. Aust J Plant Physiol 12: 119–130Google Scholar
  25. Douce R and Neuburger M (1989) The uniqueness of plant mitochondria. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 40: 371–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Douce R, Moore AL and Neuburger M (1977) Isolation and oxidative properties of intact mitochondria isolated from spinach leaves. Plant Physiol 60: 625–628Google Scholar
  27. Douce R, Bourguignon J, Macherel D and Neuburger M (1994) the glycine decarboxylase system in higher plant mitochondria: Structure, function and biogenesis Biochem Soc Trans 22: 184–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Ebbighausen H, Chen J and Heldt HW (1985) Oxaloacetate translocator in plant mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta 810: 184–199Google Scholar
  29. Edwards GE and Walker DA (1983) C3, C4: Mechanisms, and cellular and environmental regulation of photosynhtesis. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford and LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. Edwards JW and Corruzzi GM (1989) Photorespiration and light act in concert to regulate the expression of the nuclear gene for chloroplast glutamine synthetase. Plant Cell 1: 241–248CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Edwards JW, Walker EL and Coruzzi GM (1990) Cell-specific expression intransgenic plants reveals non-overlapping roles for chloroplast and cytosolic glutamine synthetase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 3459–3463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Flügge UI and Benz R (1984) Pore-forming activity in the outer membrane of the chloroplast envelope. FEBS Lett 169: 85–89Google Scholar
  33. Flügge UI, Freisl M and Heldt HW (1980) The mechanism of the control of carbon fixation by the pH in the chloroplast stroma. Planta 149: 48–51Google Scholar
  34. Flügge UI, Weber A, Fisher K, Häusler R and Kammerer B (1996) Molecular characterization of plastid transporters. C R Acad Sci 319: 849–852Google Scholar
  35. Fujiwara K, Okamura-Ikeda K and Motokawa Y (1994). Purification and characterization of lipoyl-AMP: Nε-lysine lipoyltransferase frombovine liver mitochondria. J Biol Chem 269: 16605–16609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gardeström P and Edwards GE (1985) Leaf mitochondria (C3+C4+CAM). In: Douce R and DA Day (eds) Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, Vol. 18, Higher plant cell respiration, pp 314–346. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  37. Gardeström P, Bergman A, Sahlström S, Edman K-A and Ericson I (1983). A comparison of the membrane composition of mitochondria isolkated from spinach leaves and leaf petioles. Plant Sci. Lett. 31: 173–180Google Scholar
  38. Gerhardt B (1981). Enzyme activities of the β-oxidation pathway in leaf peroxisomes. FEBS Lett. 126: 71–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Givan CV (1980) Amino transferases in higher plants. In: Miflin BJ (ed) The Biochemistry of Plants, Vol. 5, Amino acids and Derivatives, pp 329–357. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Givan CV, and Kleczkowski LA (1992) The enzymic reduction of glyoxylate and hydroxypyruvate in leaves of higher plants. Plant Physiol 100: 552–556Google Scholar
  41. Givan CV, Joy KW and Kleczkowski LA (1988) A decade of photorespiratory nitrogen cycling. Trends in Biochem Sci 13: 433–437Google Scholar
  42. Greenler JM, Sloan JS, Schwartz BW and Becker WM (1989) Isolation, characterization and sequence analysis of a full length cDNA encoding NADH-dependent hydoxypyruvate reductase from cucumber. Plant Mol Biol 13: 139–150CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gutteridge S and Gatenby AA (1995) Rubisco synthesis, assembly, mechanism and regulation. Plant Cell 7: 809–819CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hall NP, Reggiani R and Loa G (1985). Molecular weights of glycolate oxidase from C3 and C4 plants determined during early stages of purification. Phytochemistry 25: 1645–1648Google Scholar
  45. Hanning I and Heldt HW (1993). On the function of mitochondrial metabolism during photosynthesis in spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea L.). Partitioning between respiration and export of redox equivalents and precursors for nitrate assimilation products. Plant Physiol, 103: 1147–1154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hardy P and Baldy P (1986) Corn phosphoglycolate phosphatase: purification and properties. Planta 168: 245–252Google Scholar
  47. Hatch MD, Dröscher L, Flügge UI and Heldt HW (1984). A specific translocator for oxaloacetate transport in chloroplasts. FEBS Letts. 178: 15–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Havir EA, Brisson LF and Zelitch I (1996) Distribution of catalase isoforms in Nicotiana tabacum. Phytochemistry 41: 699–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Heineke D, Riens B, Grosse H, Hoferichter P, Peter U, Flügge UI and Heldt HW (1991) Redox transfer across the inner chloroplast envelope membrane. Plant Physiol 95: 1131–1137Google Scholar
  50. Heupel R and Heldt HW (1994) Proteinorganization in the matrix of leaf peroxisomes: A multi-enzyme complex involved in photorespiratory metabolism. Eur J Biochem, 220: 165–172CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Heupel R, Markgraf Th, Robinson DG and Heldt HW (1991) Compartmentation studies on spinach leaf peroxisomes. Evidence for channeling of photorespiratory metabolites in peroxisomes devoid of intact boundary membrane. Plant Physiol 96: 971–979Google Scholar
  52. Hondred D, Wadle DM, Titus DE and Becker WM (1987) Light-stimulated accumulation of the peroxysomal enzymes hydroxypyruvate reductase and serine:glyoxylate amino-transferase and their translatable mRNAs in cotyledons and cucumber seedlings. Plant Mol Biol 9: 259–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Horng JT, Behari R, Burke CA and Baker A (1995) Investigation of the energy requirement and targeting signal for the import of glycolate oxidase into glyoxysomes. Eur J Biochem 230: 157–163CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Howitz KT and McCarty RE. (1985) Substrate specificity of the pea chloroplast glycolate transporter. Biochemistry 24: 3645–3650Google Scholar
  55. Howitz KT and McCarty RE (1985) Kinetic characteristics of the chloroplast envelope glycolate transporter. Biochemistry 24: 2645–2652Google Scholar
  56. Howitz KT and McCarty RE.(1991) Solubilization, partial purification and reconstitution of the glycolate/glycerate transporter from chloroplast inner envelope membranes. Plant Physiol 96: 1060–1069Google Scholar
  57. Huang AHC, Trelease RN and Moore TS (1983) Plant peroxisomes. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. Husic DW, Husic HD and Tolbert NE (1987). The oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle or C2 Cycle. CRC Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 5: 45–100Google Scholar
  59. Imeson HC, Zheng L and Cossins EA (1990) Folylpolyglutamate derivatives of Pisum sativum L. Determination of polyglutamate chain lengths by high performance liquid chromatography following conversion to p-amino benzoyl polyglutamates. Plant Cell Physiol. 31: 223–231Google Scholar
  60. Ireland RJ and Joy KW (1983) Purification and properties of an as paragine amino transferase from Pisum sativum leaves. Arch Biochem Biophys. 223: 291–296CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kikuchi G and Hiraga K (1982) The mitochondrial glycine cleavage system-unique features of the glycine decarboxylation. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 45: 137–149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kim DE and Smith SM (1994) Expression of a single gene encoding microbody NAD-malate dehydrogenase during glyoxysome and peroxisome development in cucumber. Plant Mol Biol 26: 1833–1841PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kim Y and Oliver D (1990). Molecular cloning, transcriptional characterization, and sequencing of the cDNA encoding the H-protein of the mitochondrial glycine decarboxylase complex in peas. J Biol Chem 265: 848–853PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kim Y, Shah K and Oliver DJ (1991) Cloning and lightdependent expression of the gene coding for the P-protein of the glycine decarboxylase complex from peas. Physiologia Plant. 81: 501–506Google Scholar
  65. Kleczkowski LA and Randall DD (1988) Purification and characterization of a novel NADPH(NADH)-dependent hydroxypyruvate reductase from spinach leaves. Biochem J 250: 145–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kleczkowski LA, Randall DD and Zahler WL( 1985) The substrate specificity, kinetics, and mechanism of glycerate-3-kinase from spinach leaves. Arch Biochem Biophys 236: 185–194CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kleczkowski LA, Edwards GE, Blackwell RD, Lea PJ and Givan CV (1990) Enzymology of the reduction of hydroxypyruvate and glyoxylate in a mutant of barley lacking peroxisomal hydroxypyruvate reductase. Plant Physiol 94: 819–825Google Scholar
  68. Klein SM and Sagers RD (1966) Glycine metabolism: 1. Properties of the system catalyzing the exchange of bicarbonate with the carboxyl group of glycine in Peptococcus glycinophilus. J Biol Chem 241: 197–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kochi H and Kikuchi G (1969) Reactions of glycine synthesis and glycine cleavage catalyzed by extracts of Arthrobacter globiformis grown in glycine. Arch Biochem Biophys 132: 359–369CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kohn LD, Warren W.A and Carroll WR (1970) The structural properties of spinach leaf glyoxylic acid reductase. J Biol Chem 245: 3821–3230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Krömer S and Heldt HW (1991a) Respiration of pea leaf mitochondria and redox transfer between the mitochondrial and extra mitochondrial compartment. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1057: 42–50Google Scholar
  72. Krömer S and Heldt HW (1991b) On the role of mitochondrial phosphorylation in photosynthesis metabolism as studied by the effect of oligomycin on photosynthesis in protoplasts and leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Plant Physiol, 95: 1270–1276Google Scholar
  73. Kunce C and Trealease R (1986) Heterogeneity of catalase in maturing and germinating cotton seeds. Plant Physiol 81: 1134–1139Google Scholar
  74. Lazarow PB and Fujiki F (1985) Biogenesis of peroxisomes. Annu Rev Cell Biol. 1: 489–530CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Lea PJ and Forde BG (1994) The use of mutants and transgenic plants to study amino acid metabolism Plant Cell Environ 17: 541–556Google Scholar
  76. Lea PJ, Wallsgrove RM and Miflin BJ (1978) Photorespiratory cycle. Nature 257: 741–743Google Scholar
  77. Leegood RC, Lea PJ, Adcock MD and Haüsler RE (1995) The regulation and control of photorespiration. J Exp Bot 46: 1397–1414Google Scholar
  78. Lilley RMC, Ebbighausen H, Heldt HW (1987) The simultaneous determination of carbon dioxide release and oxygen uptake in suspensions of plant leaf mitochondria oxidizing glycine. Plant Physiol 83: 349–353Google Scholar
  79. Lindqvist Y, Branden CI, Mathews FS and Lederer F (1991) Spinach glycolate oxidase and yeast flavocytochrome-b2 are structurally homologous and evolutionarily related enzymes with distinctly different function and flavin mononucleotide binding. J Biol Chem 266: 3198–3207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lorimer GH( 1981) The carboxylation and oxygenation of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate: the primary events in photosynthesis and photorespiration. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 32: 349–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lorimer GH and Andrews TJ (1981) The C2 chemo-and photorespiratory carbon oxidation cycle. In: Hatch MD and Boardman NK (eds) The Biochemistry of plants, Vol 8, Photosynthesis, pp 329–374. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  82. Macherel D, Lebrun M, Gagnon J, Neuburger M and Douce R (1990) Primary structure and expression of H-protein, a component of the glycine cleavage system of pea leaf mitochondria. Biochem J 268: 783–789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Macherel D, Bourguignon J and Douce R (1992) Cloning of the gene (gdc H) encoding H-protein, a component of the glycine decarboxylase complex of pea (Pisum sativum). Biochem J 286: 627–630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Macherel D, Bourguignon J, Forest E, Faure M, Cohen-Addad C, and Douce R (1996) Expression, lipoylation and structure determination of recombinant pea H-protein in Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem 236: 27–33CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Macko V, Wolpert TJ, Acklin W, Jaun B, Seibl J, Meili J and Arigoni D (1985). Characterization of victorin C, the major host selective toxin from Cochliobolus victorias: structure of degradation products. Experientia 41: 1366–1370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. McHale NA, Havir EA and Zelitch I (1988) A mutant of Nicotiana sylvestris deficient in serine:glyoxylate amino transferase activity. Theor Appl Genet 76: 71–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mérand V, Forest E, Gagnon J, Monnet C, Thibault P, Neuburger M and Douce R (1993). Characterization of the primary structure of H-protein from Pisum sativum and location of a lipoic acid residue by combined LC-MS and LC-MS-MS. Biol Mass Spectrometry 22: 447–456Google Scholar
  88. Murray AJS, Blackwell RD, Joy KW and Lea PJ (1987) Photorespiratory N donors, amino transferase specificity and photosynthesis in a mutant of barley deficient in serine: glyoxylate amino transferase activity. Planta 172: 106–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Murray AJS, Blackwell RD and Lea PJ (1989) metabolism of hydroxypyruvate in a mutant of Barley lacking NADH-dependent hydroxypyruvate reductase, an important photorespiratory enzyme activity Plant Physiol 91: 395–400Google Scholar
  90. Nakamura Y and Tolbert NE (1983) Serine: glyoxylate, alanine: glyoxylate and glutamate:glyoxylate amino transferase reactions in peroxisomes from spinach leaves. J Biol Chem 258: 7631–7638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Navarre DA and Wolpert TJ (1995) Inhibition of the glycine decarboxylase multienzyme complex by the host-selective toxin victorin. Plant Cell 7: 463–471CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Neuburger M, Jourdain A and Douce R (1991) Isolation of H-protein loaded with methylamine as a transient species in glycine decarboxylase reactions. Biochem J 278: 765–769PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Neuburger M, Day DA and Douce R (1985) Transport of NAD+ in percoll-purified potato tuber mitochondria. Inhibition of NAD+influx and efflux by N-4-azido-l-nitrophenyl-4-aminobutyryl-3′-NAD+ Plant Physiol 78: 405–410Google Scholar
  94. Neuburger M, Bourguignon J and Douce R (1986) Isolation of a large complex from the matrix of pea leaf mitochondria involved in the rapid transformation of glycine into serine. FEBS Lett 207: 18–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Neuburger M, Rébeillé F, Jourdain A, Nakamura S and Douce R (1996) Mitochondria are a major site for folate and thimidy late synthesis in plants. J Biol Chem 271: 9466–9472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Ninnemann O, Jauniaux J-C and Frommer WB (1994) Identification of a high affinity NH3 transporter from plants. EMBO J. 13: 3464–3471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Noguchi T and Hayashi S (1980) Peroxisomal localization and properties of tryptophan amino transferase in plant leaves. J Biol Chem 255: 2267–2269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Noguchi T and Hoyashi S (1981) Plant leaf alanine: 2-oxoglutarate amino transferase. Peroxisomal localization and identity with glutamate:glyoxylate amino transferase. Biochem J 195: 235–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Ogren WL (1984) Photorespiration: Pathways, regulation and modification. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 35: 15–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Okinaka O and Iwai K (1970). The biosynthesis of folic acid compounds in plants J Vitaminol 16: 196–209Google Scholar
  101. Oliver DJ (1987) Glycine uptake by pea leaf mitochondria: A proposed model for the mechanism of glycine-serine exchange. In: Moore AL and Beechey RB (eds) Plant mitochondria. Structural, Functional and Physiological Aspects, pp 219–22. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  102. Oliver DJ (1994) The glycine decarboxylase complex from plant mitochondria. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 45: 323–338Google Scholar
  103. Oliver DJ and Raman R (1995) Glycine decarboxylase: Protein chemistry and molecular biology of the major protein in leaf mitochondria. J Bioenergetics Biomembranes 27: 407–414Google Scholar
  104. Oliver DJ,. Neuburger M, Bourguignon J and Douce R (1990) Glycine metabolism by plant mitochondria. Physiologia Plantarum 80: 487–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ohnishi J and Kanai R (1983) Differentiation of photorespiratory activity between mesophyll and bundle sheathcells of C4 plants. I. Glycine oxidation by mitochondria. Plant Cell Physiol 24: 1411–1420Google Scholar
  106. Osmond CB and Grace SC (1995) Perspectives on photoinhibition and photorespiration in the field: Quintessential inefficiencies of the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis, J Exp Bot 46: 1351–1362Google Scholar
  107. Pares S, Cohen-Addad C, Sieker L, Neuburger M and Douce R (1994). X-ray structure determination at 2.6 Â-resolution of a lipoate containing protein: The H-protein of the glycine decarboxylase from pea leaves. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 4850–4853PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Parry R.J (1983) Biosynthesis of some sulfur-containing natural products. Investigations of the mechanism of carbon-sulfur bond formation. Tetrahedron 39: 1215–1238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Pierce J, Lorimer GH and Reddy GS (1986) The kinetic mechanism of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase: Evidence for an ordered, sequential reaction. Biochemistry 25: 1636–1644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Prabhu V, Chatson KB, Abrams GD and King J (1996) 13C nuclear magnetic resonance detection of interactions of serine hydroxymethyltransferase with-tetrahydrofolate synthase and glycine decarboxylase activities in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 112: 207–216CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Rawsthorne S (1992) C3-C4 intermediate photosynthesis: Linking physiology to gene expression. Plant J 2: 267–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Rawsthorne S, Douce R and Oliver D (1995) The glycine decarboxylase complex in higher plant mitochondria: Structure, function and biogenesis. In: Wallsgrove RM (ed) Amino Acids and Their Derivatives in Higher Plants, pp 87–109. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  113. Rébeillé F and Hatch MD (1986a) Regulation of NADP-malate dehydrogenase in C4 plants: Effect of varying NADPH to NADP ratios and thioredoxin redox state on enzyme activity in reconstituted systems. Arch Biochem Biophys 249: 164–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Rébeillé F and Hatch MD (1986b) Regulation of NADP-malate dehydrogenase in C4 plants: Relationship among enzyme activity, NADPH to NADP ratios, and thioredoxin redox state in intact amize mesophyll chloroplasts. Arch Biochem Biophys 249: 171–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Rébeillé F, Neuburger M and Douce R (1994) PInteraction between glycine decarboxylase, serine hydroxymethyltransferase and tetrahydrofolate polyglutamates in pea leaf mitochondria. Biochem J 302: 223–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Rébeillé F, Macherel D, Mouillon J.M, Garin J and Douce R (1997) Folate biosynthesis in higher plants: purification and molecular cloning of a bifunctional 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase/7,8-dihydropteroate synthase localized in mitochondria EMBO J. 16: 947–957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Redinbaugh MG, Sabre M and Scandalios JG (1990) The distribution of catalase activity, isozyme protein and transcript in the tissues of the developing maize seedling. Plant Physiol 92: 375–380Google Scholar
  118. Rehfeld DW and Tolbert NE (1972) Amino transferases in peroxisomes from spinach leaves. J Biol Chem 247: 4803–4811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Reumann S, Heupel R, and Heldt HW (1994) Compartmentation studies on spinach leaf peroxisomes. II. Evidence for the transfer of reductant from the cytosol to the peroxisomal compartment via malate shuttle. Planta 193: 167–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Reumann S, Maier E, Benz R, and Heldt HW (1995) The membrane of leaf peroxisomes contains a porin-like channel. J Biol Chem 270: 17559–17565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Reumann S, Maier E, Benz R, and Heldt HW (1996) A specific porin is involved in the malate shuttle of leaf peroxisomes. Biochemical Society Transactions 24: 754–757PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Reumann S, Bettermann M, Benz R and Heldt HW (1997) Evidence for the presence of a porin in the membrane of glyoxysomes of castor bean. Plant Physiol 115: 891–899PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Reumann S, Maier E, Heldt HW and Benz R (1998) Permeability properties of the porin of spinach leaf peroxisomes. Eur J Biochem 251: 359–366CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Rogers WJ, Jordan B, Rawsthorne S and Tobin AK (1991) Changes to the stoichiometry of glycine decarboxylase subunits during wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaf development. Plant Physiol 96: 952–956Google Scholar
  125. Rolland N, Dorne AJ, Amoroso G, Séltemeyer DF, Joyard J and Rochaix JD (1997) Disruption of the plastid ycf10 open reading frame affect uptake of inorganic carbon in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas. EMBO J 16: 6713–6726CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Sandalova T and Lindqvist Y (1993) Crystal structure of apoglycolate oxidase. FEBS Lett 327: 361–365CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Sarojini G and Oliver D (1985) Inhibition of glycine oxidation by carboxymethoxylamine, methoxylamine, and acethydrazide. Plant physiol. 77: 786–789Google Scholar
  128. Scandalios JG (1994) Regulation and properties of plant catalases. n: Foyer CH and Mullineaux PM (eds) Causes of Photooxidative Stress and Amelioration of Defense Systems in Plants, pp 275–315. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  129. Scheibe R (1987) NADP-malate dehydrogenase in C3 plants: Regulation and role of a light activated enzyme. Physiologia Plantarum 71: 393–400Google Scholar
  130. Scheibe R (1990) Light/dark modulation: Regulation of chloroplast metabolism in a new light. Botanica Acta 103: 327–334Google Scholar
  131. Schirch LV (1984) Folates in glycine and serine metabolism. In: Blakley RL and Benkovic SJ (eds) Folates and Pterins, Vol 1, pp 399–131. Wiley (Interscience), New YorkGoogle Scholar
  132. Schmidt A, Krömer S, Heldt HW and Benz R. (1992) Identification of two general diffusion channels in the outer membrane of pea mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1112: 174–180Google Scholar
  133. Schmitt MR and Edwards, GE (1983) Provision of reductant for the hydroxypyruvate to glycerate conversion in leaf peroxisomes. Plant Physiol 72: 728–734Google Scholar
  134. Sharkey TD (1988) Estimating the rate of photorespiration in leaves. Physiol Plant 73: 147–152Google Scholar
  135. Sinclair DA Hong SP and Dawes IW (1996) Specific induction by glycine of the gene for the P-subunit of glycine decarboxylase from Saccammyces cerevisiae. Mol Microbiol. 19: 611–623CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Somerville CR (1982) Genetic modification of photorespiration. Trends Biochem. Sci. 7, 171–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Somerville, CR and Ogren WL (1979) A phosphoglycolate phosphatase-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis. Nature 280: 833–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Somerville CR and Ogren WL (1980) Photorespiration mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana deficient in serine:glyoxylate amino transferase activity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 77: 2684–2687Google Scholar
  139. Somerville CR and Ogren WL (1981) Photorespiration-deficient mutants ofArabidopsis thaliana lacking mitochondrial serine transhydroxymethylase activity. Plant Physiol 67: 666–671Google Scholar
  140. Somerville CR and Ogren WL (1982) Mutants of the cruciferous plant Arabidopsis thaliana lacking glycine decarboxylase activity. Biochem J 202: 373–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Somerville SC and Somerville CR (1983) Effects of oxygen and carbon dioxyde on photorespiratory flux determined from glycine accumulation in amutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. J Exp Bot 34: 415–424Google Scholar
  142. Spronk A.M and Cossins EA (1972) Folate derivative of photosynthetic tissues. Phytochemistry 11: 3157–3165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Srinavasan R and Oliver DJ (1995) Light-dependent and tissue specific expression of the H-protein of the glycine decarboxylase complex. Plant Physiol 109: 161–168Google Scholar
  144. Srinivasan R, Kraus C and Oliver DJ (1992) Developmental expression of the glycine decarboxylase multienzyme complex in greening pea leaves. In: Lambers H and van der Plas LHW (eds) Molecular, Biochemical, and Physiological Aspects of Plant Respiration, pp 323–334. SBP Academic publishing, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  145. Stenberg K, Clausen T, Lindqvist Y and Macheroux P (1995) Involvment of Tyr24 and Trp 108 in substrate binding and substrate specificity of glycolate oxidase. Eur J Biochem 228: 408–416CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Ta TC and Joy KW (1986) Metabolism of some amino acids in relation to the photorespiratory nitrogen cycle of pea leaves. Planta, 169: 117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Titus DE, Hondred D. and Becker WM (1983) Purification and characterization of hydroxypyruvate reductase from cucumber cotyledons. Plant Physiol, 72: 402–408Google Scholar
  148. Tobin AK and Rogers WJ (1992) Metabolic interactions of organelles during leaf developement. In: Tobin AK (ed) Plant Organelles: Compartmentation of Metabolism in Photosynthetic Tissue, pp 293–324, Society for Experimental Biology Seminar Series 50. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  149. Tolbert NE (1980) Microbodies—peroxisomes and glyoxysomes. In Stumpf PK and Conn EE (eds) The Biochemistry of Plants, Vol 1, pp 359–388. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  150. Tsugeki R, Hara-Nishimura I, Mori H and Nishimura M (1993) Cloning and sequencing of cDNA for glycolate oxidase fom pumpkin cotyledons and northern blot analysis. Plant Cell Physiol 34: 51–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Turner SR, Ireland RJ and Rawsthorne S (1992a) Cloning and characterization of the P-subunit of glycine decarboxylase from pea. J Biol Chem 267: 5355–5360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Turner SR, Ireland RJ, Morgan CL and Rawsthorne S (1992b) Identification and localization of multiple forms of serine hydroxymethyl transferase in pea (Pisum sativum) and characterization of a cDNA encoding a mitochondrial isoform. J Biol Chem 267: 13528–13534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Vauclare P, Diallo N, Bourguignon J, Macherel D and Douce R (1996) Regulation of the expression of the glycine decarboxylase during pea leaf development. Plant Physiol 112: 1523–1530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Volotika, M. (1991) The carboxy-terminal end of glycolate oxidase directs a foreign protein into tobacco leaf peroxisomes. Plant J. 1: 361–366Google Scholar
  155. Volokita M and Sommerville CR (1987). The primary structure of spinach glycolate oxidase deduced from the cDNA sequences of a cDNA clone. J Biol Chem 262: 15825–15828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Wada H, Shintani D and Ohlrogge J (1997) Why do mitochondria synthesize fatty acids? Evidence for involvement in lipoic acid production. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 1591–1596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Walker GH, Sarojini G and Oliver DJ (1982) Identification of a glycine transporter from pea leaf mitochondria. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 107: 856–861CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Walker JL and Oliver D (1986) Glycine decarboxylase multi enzyme complex. Purification and partial characterization from pea leaf mitochondria. J Biol Chem 261: 2214–2221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Wallsgrove RM, Turner JC, Hall NP, Kendall AC and Bright SWJ (1987) Barley mutants lacking chloroplastic glutamine synthetase-biochemical and genetic analysis. Plant Physiol 83: 155–158Google Scholar
  160. Weber A, Menzlaff E, Arbinger B, Gutensohn M, Eckerskorn C and Flügge UI (1995) The 2-oxoglutarate/malate translocator of chloroplast envelope membranes: Molecular cloning of a transporter containing a 12-helix motif and expression of the functional protein in yeast cells. Biochemistry 34: 2621–2627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Wendler C, Putzer A and Wild A (1992) Effect of glufosinate (phosphinothricin) and inhibitors of photorespiration on photosynthesis and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity. J Plant Physiol 139: 666–671Google Scholar
  162. Wolpert TJ, Navarre D.A, Moore DL and Macko V (1994) Identification of the 100-kD victorin binding protein from Oats. Plant Cell 6: 1145–1155CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Woo KC, Flügge UI and Heldt HW (1987) A two-translocator model for the transport of 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate in chloroplasts during ammonia assimilation in the light. Plant Physiol. 84: 624–632Google Scholar
  164. Yu C, Claybrook DL and Huang AHC (1983) Transport of glycine, serine and proline into spinach leaf mitochondria. Arch Biochem Biophys 227: 180–187CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roland Douce
    • 1
  • Hans-Walter Heldt
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire VégétaleCNRS/CEA/Université Joseph Fourier, Département de Biologie Moléculaire et StructuraleGrenoble cedexFrance
  2. 2.Institut für Biochemie der Pflanze der Universitat GöttingenGöttingenGermany

Personalised recommendations