1973–1974: Murder and Infamy

Part of the Studies of Organized Crime book series (SOOC, volume 2)


Organize Crime Gang Member Criminal History Disorderly Conduct Grand Jury 
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  1. 1.
    The Hanafi murders are described in excruciating detail in the following. District of Columbia Court of Appeals, William Christian, Appellant, v. United States, Appellee; Theodore Moody, Appellant, v. United States, Appellee; John W. Clark, Appellant, v. United States, Appellee, Nos. 8809, 8810, 8811, 11042, 394 A. 2d 1, September 28, 1978; John Sansing, “Hanafi Massacre, Hanafi Siege: How Greed, Revenge, Religious Fanaticism, and a Search for Justice Combined into a Washington Tragedy,” The Washingtonian, February 1980, pp. 87–96; and Karl Evanzz, The Messenger: The Rise and Fall of Elijah Muhammad (New York: Pantheon Books, 1999), pp 383–393.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Peter Knobler, Giant Steps (New York: Bantam Books, 1983). Excerpts of Abdul-Jabbar’s autobiography appeared in “Abdul-Jabbar’s Long String of Off-the-Court Tragedies,” The Philadelphia Inquirer, December 22, 1983, Local, p. D01. Authorities initially thought Abdul-Jabbar may have been a target, and thus he was afforded a police escort for months following the events.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Christian et al. v. U.S.; and James Nicholson, “The Underworld on the Brink of War: Part 1 — The Muslim Mob Gets It On,” Philadelphia Magazine, November 1973, p. 220.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mattias Gardell, In the Name of Elijah Muhammad: Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1996), p. 189. The full text of the second letter, sent on January 5, 1973, is presented in Appendix B of Evanzz, The Messenger, pp. 446–449.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jim Nicholson, “Hanafi Siege Adds Chapter to Holy War,” The Sunday Bulletin, March 13, 1977, p. 1B.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Evanzz. p. 381.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Christian et al v. U.S. pp. 3–4.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sansing p. 91.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    PPD, “Background Investigation: Ronald Harvey,” p.30.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ivan C. Brandon, “Two Philadelphia Suspects Quizzedin Hanafi Slayings,” The Washington Post, January 31, 1973.Google Scholar
  11. 12.
    Eugene Meyer and Paul Edwards, “Barry ‘A Very Lucky Man’: Bullet stopped near Heart,” The Washington Post, March 10, 1977, p. A1.Google Scholar
  12. 13.
    Sansing p. 94. There is a significant follow-up to the Hanafi murders, though not particularly germane to the understanding of the Black Mafia, per se. On March 9, 1977, Hamaas Abdul Khaalis and 11 other Hanafi Muslims under his direction stormed three government buildings. He and his followers were armed with an assortment of weapons, including a shotgun, rifles, handguns, machetes and a cross-bow. At approximately 11:00am, several Hanafis entered the B’nai B’rith national headquarters building, six blocks northwest of the White House, armed with guns and machetes. They attacked people in the lobby, shooting and pistol-whipping people as they rounded up occupants floor by floor. At approximately 11:30am, Hanafis wielding guns entered the Islamic Center on Embassy Row. At 2:40pm, Hanafis armed with shotguns stormed the D.C. City Council chambers in the District Building, less than two blocks from the White House. The men “took an elevator to the fifth floor, where the Council offices [were] located, stepped out into a corridor and blasted away.” One of the terrorists fired a shotgun with double-O buckshot, killing Maurice Williams, a reporter for a local radio station, and wounding City Councilman Marion Barry in the chest. Another Hanafi fired a shotgun at Robert Pierce, a City Council aide, as he lay on the floor with his hands tied behind his back. At B’Nai B’rith, gunmen had the largest group of hostages, including press officer Hank Siegel. Siegel later recalled some of the events. One particularly tense moment occurred when Khaalis called Siegel over and ordered a guard to point a rifle at Siegel’s head. Khaalis next said, “The elevator is coming up. If there’s a cop on it, he’s dead and you’re dead.” The elevator was empty, and Siegel survived without further incident, though he did witness an assault. Khaalis and his followers were surprised to discover African-Americans working for the Jewish group. Siegel watched as an African-American man was stabbed “because he was working for Jews”. In all, Hamaas and his followers held 149 hostages, killed one person and wounded over 40 others. The hostage situation lasted for 37 hours. The events were attributable to the 1973 killings at the hand sof the Black Mafia. Hama as was disconcerted over wha the deemed unsatis factory punishments for the Hanafi killers. Amina Khaalis, Hamaas’ daughter, said the family was satisfied with the police investigation, but not with the judge who tried the case. The family believed Judge Leonard Braman’s Jewish back ground played a role in the trial.That is, the Hanafis believed Bramana’s heritage contributed to Khaalis’ contempt-of-court charge, and to the resolution of the case. Thus, for the first of his three demands for releasing the hostages, Khaalis demanded authorities turn over the 1973 killers from Philadelphia’s Mosque No. 12 to him, personally. He also demanded the Court pay him back $750 for the contempt-of-court fine he received during the Hanafi trials in 1974. Hamaas’ third demand was that the recently-released film, “Mohammad, Message of God,”stop being shown. The group considered the film to be sacrilegious. During the hostage situation, Khaalis stated, “First thing, I want the killers of my babies... I want to see them right here. I want to see how tough they are. 1 want the one who killed Malcolm [X] too.” He also complained about “Jewish judges” letting criminals go free. One of his cohorts stated “Zionest Jews” were behind the Black Muslims. He later repeated this line of reasoning at trial, testifying that he believed a “Zionest-Jewish conspiracy” was in place to take over the United States and the world. Theattack on the Islamic Center was apparently related to a comment made by an Islamic Center official immediately following the 1973 murders. He described the Hanafi’s knowledge of Islam as “superficial”. Ambassadors Ashraf Ghorbal (Egypt), Ardeshir Zahedi (Iran), and Sahabcada Yaqub-Khan (Pakistan) were called upon to meet with Khaalis to resolve the situation. After meeting with the three ambassadors, who sat down and discussed the Qur’an with him, Hamaas surrendered. Khaalis and thee leve nother Hanafis were indicted on May3, 1977, and on July 24, 1977 were each convicted for assorted offenses stemming from the siege. Hamaas Abdul Khaalis was sentenced to a prison term of 41 to 123 years for kidnapping and murder. The following sources were utilized in the above summary ofthe “Hanafi siege”, as it was called: The Washington Post — William Greider and Richard Harwood, “Hanafi Muslim Bands Seize Hostages at 3 Sites; 1 Slain; Others Wounded,” March 10, 1977, p. A1; Joseph D. Whitaker, “Khaalis’ Daughter:’ He’s Going to Get Murderers... You Would Call It... Retribution’,” March 11, 1977, p. A1; J.Y. Smith, “12 Hanafis Guilty in Kidnappings, 3 in Slaying,” July 24, 1977, p. A1; J.Y. Smithand Laura A. Kiernan, “12 Hanafis Given Stiff Sentences,” September 7,1977, p.Al; Laura A. Kiernan, “‘Hanafi Slayers’ Conviction Upheld,” September 29, 1978; Joseph D. Whitaker, “Appeals Court Upholds Hanafi Verdicts,” October 23, 1979, p. B1; Marc Fisher and Karlyn Barker, “10 Years After Takeover, Hostages Recall Terror,” March 10, 1987, p.B1. Understandably, the “siege” received extensive media coverage with fuller details about the event, the subsequent trial, and reflections on the events. See, for example, Charles R. Babcock and Kevin Klose, “The Beginning...; From Beginning to End, 38-Hour Drama Unfolded Slowly,” March 12, 1977, p. A1; “Why Two Sects are at Odds,” U.S. News & World Report, March 21, 1977, p. 22 (n.a.); and Phil McCombs, “The Hanafi Takeover; One Year Later,” March 5,1978, p. A1.Google Scholar
  13. 15.
    Eugene L. Meyer, “Hanafi Defendant Acquitted as Government Rests Case,” The Washington Post, May 3, 1974.Google Scholar
  14. 16.
    United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, United States of America v. John W. Clark, William Christian and John Griffin, Criminal No. 73–471, 398 F. Supp. 341, July 14, 1975.Google Scholar
  15. 17.
    Jim Nicholson, “Witness Against Muslims Finds Son’s Bodyin Car,” Philadelphia Daily News, June 12, 1980, p. 3. The Kelly residence was located at 5769 Kemble Ave.Google Scholar
  16. 18.
    U.S. v. Clark et al. At trial, Kelly (p. 26): admitted topast participation in numbers writing, denied ‘conducting’ thenumbers game at present. Denied participation in organized crime and sale and receipt of stolen goods, and refused to answer questions pertaining to the operation of the numbers game, income tax matters, and the use of proceeds from numbers in illegal narcotics transactions.Google Scholar
  17. 19.
    Ibid., p. 24.Google Scholar
  18. 20.
    Francis M. Lordan, “Muslim Killers Tried in Theft,” The Philadelphia Inquirer, November 15, 1974.Google Scholar
  19. 21.
    U.S. v. Clark et al.Google Scholar
  20. 22.
    United States of America v. James Enoch, Crim. No. 72–617, United States District Court for the eastern District of Pennsylvania, 360 F. Supp. 572; 1973 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 13919, April 24, 1973.Google Scholar
  21. 23.
    Adolph Katz, “Coxson: A Man of Mystery with a Love for Luxury Cars,” The Evening Bulletin, June 8, 1973, p. 3.Google Scholar
  22. 24.
    Strike Force’s «Intelligence Summary, Black Organized Crime-Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,» n.d.Google Scholar
  23. 25.
    OCU, «Major B. Coxson,» June 8, 1973.Google Scholar
  24. 26.
    George L. Kerns and Francis J. Lenny, «Major Coxson Slain in Cherry Hill Home,» The Evening Bulletin, June 8, 1973, p. 1.Google Scholar
  25. 27.
    Francis J. Lenny, «Major Coxson Slain in Cherry Hill Home,» The Evening Bulletin, June 8, 1973, p. 1 Ibit.Google Scholar
  26. 28.
    OCU, «Major B. Coxson,» June 8, 1973.Google Scholar
  27. 29.
    Kerns and Lenny, p. 1.Google Scholar
  28. 30.
    Nicholson, «The Underworld on the Brink of War: Part 1,» p. 216. This article contains the most comprehensive analysis of the motivations for the Coxson killing available (including law enforcement files).Google Scholar
  29. 31.
    See the Internal Revenue Service, Philadelphia Regional Office’s “List of Targets for Investigations,” April 15, 1972. The list was updated on May 26, 1972 and contained a total of twenty-one targets, including Black Mafia affiliates Coxson, Carl Banks, Vernon Earl Walden, John “Stan the Man” Watson, Robert Bolar and Leroy Griffin.Google Scholar
  30. 32.
    Katz, p. 3.Google Scholar
  31. 33.
    Nicholson, “ The Underworld on the Brink of War: Part 1,” p. 218.Google Scholar
  32. 34.
    For a synopsis of Coxson’s criminal record, also see Henry W. Messaros and Donald B. Proctor, “Coxson was ‘Inch Awa’ from Federal Charges,” The Evening Bulletin, June 8, 1973, p. 1.Google Scholar
  33. 35.
    First National Bankof Marlton, a Corporation of the United States, Plaintiff v. Major Coxson, United States of America and Internal Revenue Service, Defendants, Civil Action No. 347–73, United States District Court for the District of New Jersey, 1976 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 15155; 76–1 U.S. Tax Cas. (CCH) P9450; 37 A.F.T.R.2d (RIA) 1382, May 11, 1976, p. 2.Google Scholar
  34. 36.
    Claude Lewis, “The Doors Were Open: Business Makes It Easy for Crime Figures,” The Philadelphia Inquirer, November 11, 1987, p. A15.Google Scholar
  35. 37.
    See, for example, OCU report, “Supplemental Information: Major Coxson,” April 11, 1972.Google Scholar
  36. 38.
    Gaeton Fonzi, “The Man from M.O.X.I.E.,” Philadelphia Magazine, July 1970, p. 128.Google Scholar
  37. 39.
    Ron Avery, “Here’s a Two-House Story,” Philadelphia Daily News, July 3, 1995, p. 12.Google Scholar
  38. 40.
    James Nicholson, “Philadelphia’s Black Mafia,” The Philadelphia Inquirer, TODAY, August 12, 1973, p. T-13.Google Scholar
  39. 41.
    Gerald Early, “Muhammad Ali: His Life and Times (book review),” The New Republic, v. 205, no. 18 (October 28, 1991), p. 32, stated, “Surely, no life of Ali is complete without a thorough investigation of the Philadelphia and Cherry Hillyears, without a thorough investigation of the New York and Philadelphia mosques.” Early was particularly interested in Ali’s relationship with Major Coxson. While Ali certainly traveled with an interesting crowd in Philadelphia and South Jersey, there is no suggestion, let alone evidence, of any wrongdoings on Ali’s part. My examination of surveillance records and other intelligence documents, many of which include analyses of Ali, does not reveal a single item relating to dubious activities by Ali.Google Scholar
  40. 42.
    Nicholson, “The Underworld on the Brink of War: Part 1,” p. 219.Google Scholar
  41. 43.
    See the full-page advertisement which appeared in The Sunday Bulletin, February 18, 1973, section 3, p. 9.Google Scholar
  42. 44.
    “He Could Share His Soup,” Philadelphia Daily News, February 17, 1978, Local, (Sports, n.p.) n.a.Google Scholar
  43. 45.
    Nicholson, “The Underworld on the Brink of War: Part 1,” p. 220.Google Scholar
  44. 46.
    OCU, “Major B. Coxson,” June 8, 1973.Google Scholar
  45. 47.
    “Region has seen crimes as violent as the century,” The Philadelphia Inquirer, August 22, 1999 (n.a.).Google Scholar
  46. 48.
    Philadelphia Police Department, “Background Investigation: Ronald Harvey,” n.d., p. 37. Harvey’s lawyer was Nino V. Tinari, who suspected foul play because Harvey was supposedly “harassed” while free on bail in Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  47. 49.
    Mark Sabljak and Martin H. Greenberg, Most Wanted: A History of the FBI’s Ten Most Wanted List (New York: Bonanza Books, 1990). Christian and Harvey appear on pp. 197–198. Consider that as of August 1999, there have been a total of 458 fugitives on the F.B.I.’s “Ten Most Wanted List,” including two Black Mafia affiliates (Christian and Harvey). Murray Dubin, “After 50 Years, this top 10 list is still No. 1,” The Philadelphia Inquirer, March 17, 2000.Google Scholar
  48. 50.
    Martin H. Greenberg, Most Wanted: A History of the FBI’s Ten Most Wanted List (New York: Bonanza Books, 1990) Ibit. p. 198.Google Scholar
  49. 51.
    Strike Force’s «Intelligence Summary, Black Organized Crime — Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,» n.d.; Philadelphia Police Department, “Background Investigation: Ronald Harvey,” n.d., p. 37.Google Scholar
  50. 52.
    See Jack McGuire, “Cops Let Black Mafia Founder Slip Through Their Finger(print)s,” Philadelphia Daily News, July 16, 1990, Local, p. 7.Google Scholar
  51. 53.
    Unless otherwise noted, the following narrative is derived from a comprehensive 37-page document, Philadelphia Police Department, “Background Investigation: Ronald Harvey,” n.d.Google Scholar
  52. 54.
    Ronald Harvey, Appellant, v. United States, Appellee, No. 9309, District of Columbia Court of Appeals, 385 A.2d 36; 1978 D.C. App LEXIS 592, April 5, 1978.Google Scholar
  53. 55.
    Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Appellee, v. Ronald Harvey, Jr., Appellant, Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, 494 Pa. 154; 430 A.2d 1163; 1981 Pa. LEXIS 912, July 2, 1981.Google Scholar
  54. 56.
    “Killer Threatens Victim’s Mom,” Philadelphia Daily News, February 21, 1979. The lone witness to testify against Ronald Harvey, Jr., Ronald Willis, was shot and killed after the trial in apparent retaliation for his testimony.Google Scholar
  55. 57.
    Commonwealth of Pennsylvania v. Ronald Harvey, Appellant, No. 00145 PHL 87, Superior Court of Pennsylvania, 365 Pa. Super. 296; 529 A.2d 516; 1987 Pa. Super. LEXIS 8770, August 10, 1987.Google Scholar
  56. 58.
    Nicholson, “Philadelphia’s Black Mafia,” The Philadelphia Inquirer, TODAY, August 12, 1973 p. T–8.Google Scholar
  57. 59.
    For an economic perspective on violence and competition in organized crime, see Peter Reuter, Disorganized Crime: The Economics of the Invisible Hand (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1983), chapters 5–7. Reuter’s examination of “competitive violence” on p. 139 is particularly enlightening when considering the strained relationship between the Bruno family and the Black Mafia during the early 1970s.Google Scholar
  58. 60.
    OCU memo, “Contacts Made by Organized Crime Unit,” November 7, 1973.Google Scholar
  59. 61.
    OCU, “debriefing report,” October 1, 1973.Google Scholar
  60. 62.
    OCU, interview with informant, November 15, 1973.Google Scholar
  61. 63.
    James Nicholson, “The Underworld on the Brink of War: Part 2 — But The Mafia Isn’t Sweating,” Philadelphia Magazine, November 1973, p. 225.Google Scholar
  62. 64.
    OCU, “debriefing report,” October 1, 1973.Google Scholar
  63. 65.
    Nicholson, “The Underworld on the Brink of War: Part 2,” p. 224.Google Scholar
  64. 66.
    OCU “debriefing report,” November 15, 1973.Google Scholar
  65. 67.
    Strike Force’ “Intelligence Summary, Black Organized Crime — Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,” n.d. p. 6. Also see OCU debriefing report, “Black Mafia Notes,” September 24, 1973, containing information received by OCU from informant.Google Scholar
  66. 68.
    Robert J. Terry and Paul Nussbaum, “Reputed Black Mafia Leader Slain,” The Philadelphia Inquirer, January 24, 1986, p. B03.Google Scholar
  67. 69.
    DEA debriefing report, “Black Organized Crime Traffickers,” October 12, 1973.Google Scholar
  68. 70.
    See DEA debriefing report, “ABNEY, George @ BO ABNEY,” n.d., p. 1.Google Scholar
  69. 71.
    OCU, “History of Black B. Inc.,” March 7, 1974, p. 3.Google Scholar
  70. 72.
    John F. Morrison, “‘Black Mafia’ Was Short-Lived,” Philadelphia Daily News, January 24, 1986, Local, p. 4.Google Scholar
  71. 73.
    Jim Nicholson, “Drug Chief,” Philadelphia Daily News, May 25, 1979, Local, p. 12.Google Scholar
  72. 74]
    Unless otherwise noted, the following narrative is derived from a 5-page background report. Philadelphia Police Department, Organized Crime Unit, “Black Mafia: Investigation of James Fox,” December 14, 1973.Google Scholar
  73. 75.
    Unless otherwise noted, the following narrative is derived from a 5-page background report. Philadelphia Police Department, Organized Crime Unit, “Black Mafia: Investigation of Lonnie Dawson,” December 3, 1973.Google Scholar
  74. 80.
    OCU debriefing report, “Black Inc.,” February 26, 1974.Google Scholar
  75. 81.
    United States of America v. Larry Starks, Clarence Starks, Alonzo Robinson, Donald Everett, Abney Merrill, Albert Ferguson Alonzo Robinson, Appellant in No. 74-1947 Larry Starks, Appellant in No. 74-1966 Donald Everett Abney, Appellant in No. 74-1967, Nos. 74-1947, 74-1966, 74-1967, United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, 515 F.2d 112; 1975 U.S. App. LEXIS 15030, April 21, 1975.Google Scholar
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  77. 83.
    OCU debriefing report, “Extortion of Ulysses Rice & Arrest of Larry Starks and Clarence Starks,” February 28, 1974, p. 2.Google Scholar
  78. 84.
    OCU debriefing report, untitled, February 25, 1974 (included in the Black Mafia files, along with other intelligence re: Nookie’s Bar/Tavernand Ulysses Rice).Google Scholar
  79. 85.
    OCU debriefing report, “Confidential Information: Threats to F.B.I. Agent,” February 26, 1974.Google Scholar
  80. 86.
  81. 90.
    Commonwealth of Pennsylvania v. Clarence Starks, Appellant, Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, 484 Pa. 399; 399 A.2d 353; 1979 LEXIS 461, March 14, 1979. A jury found Starks guilty of “homicide of the first degree, criminal conspiracy, carrying a firearm on a public street or public property and unlawfully carrying a firearm without a license.” The court sentenced him to “life imprisonment on the murder conviction, five to ten years imprisonment on the conspiracy conviction and two separate two and one-half to five year prison sentences on the weapons violations. All of the sentences were to be concurrent.” (p. 1)Google Scholar
  82. 91.
    Ibid., p. 3.Google Scholar
  83. 92.
    Debriefing memo, “Black Incorporated,” February 1, 1974.Google Scholar
  84. 93.
    Strike Force press release (re: Arrest of George Sampson), no title, March 3, 1975.Google Scholar
  85. 94.
    Philadelphia Police Department, Organized Crime Unit, “Black Mafia”, August 23, 1974.Google Scholar
  86. 95.
    U.S. v. Clark et at., p. 5.Google Scholar
  87. 96.
    “Witness Against Muslims Son’s Body in Car,” NicholsonGoogle Scholar
  88. 97.
    Because Price was found hanging in his cell, some have mistakenly written that he committed suicide. See, for example, Steven Tsoukas, The Nation of Islam: Understanding the ‘Black Muslims’ (Phillipsburg, NJ: P & R Publishing, 2001), p. 97; and Vibert L. White, Jr., Inside the Nation of Islam: A Historical and Personal Testimony by a Black Muslim (Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2001), p. 29.Google Scholar
  89. 98.
    “Man Gets New Murder Trial; Key Witness is Dead,” Philadelphia Daily News, July 22, 1981, Local, p. 18.Google Scholar
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    Nicholson, “The Underworld on the Brink of War,” p. 221.Google Scholar
  91. 100.
    U.S. v. Clark et al.Google Scholar
  92. 101.
    Dave Racher and Gloria Campisi, “‘Changed Man’ Gets 20 Years’ Probation for Role in 1969 Murder,” Philadelphia Daily News, December 29, 1981, Local, p. 12.Google Scholar
  93. 102.
    See Eugene L. Meyer, “Witness Balks at Testifying,” The Washington Post, March 30, 1974.Google Scholar
  94. 103.
    Eugene L. Meyer, “Black Muslim ‘Traitors’ Warned of Vengeance,” The Washington Post, April 5, 1974.Google Scholar
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  96. 105.
    Commonwealth of Pennsylvania v. Theodore X. Brown, Appellant (two cases), Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, 482 Pa. 130; 393 A.2d 414; 1978 Pa. LEXIS 957, October 5, 1978.Google Scholar
  97. 107.
    Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Appellant, v. Theodore Moody, Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, 476 Pa. 223; 382 A. 2d 442; 1977 Pa. LEXIS 955, November 30, 1977.Google Scholar
  98. 108.
    Ibid., p. 13.Google Scholar
  99. 109.
    John Griffin was sentenced to life imprisonment for the murder of Price. There is an ironic component to this murder case. Price was murdered in part, if not wholly, because he provided information about the role of Griffin and others in the Hanafi murders. Griffin was later cleared of the Hanafi killings in 1977 when a key witness identified a person other than Griffin, who she had implicated in his 1974 trial. Thus, Griffin was sentenced to life in prison for murdering an informant in a case for which Griffin was exonerated. See Laura A. Kiernan, “Hanafi Case Defendant Acquitted,” The Washington Post, November 6, 1977, p. B1.Google Scholar
  100. 110.
    Commonwealth v. Brown, p. 2. In the Price case, Brown was convicted of murder of the first degree and criminal conspiracy. He received life imprisonment for the murder conviction and five to ten years for the conspiracy conviction. The sentences were to run consecutively to each other and to sentences he was already serving for other crimes.Google Scholar
  101. 113.
    Nicholson, “Drug Chief,” p. 12.Google Scholar
  102. 114.
    Jim Nicholson, “20 in Black Mafia Arrested in Raids; Syndicate ‘Broken’,” The Philadelphia Inquirer, September 1974; and Jack McKinney, “Slain Man Suspected,” Philadelphia Daily News, July 25, 1978, Local, p. 5.Google Scholar
  103. 115.
    Strike Force’s press release, February 3, 1975; contained in OCU Black Mafia files. The other defendants were William Jefferson, Gregory Trice, Barthaniel Thornton and Ferris Foster.Google Scholar
  104. 116.
    United States District Court, District of Kansas, James Fox v. U.S. Parole Commission, et al., No. 80-3044, 517 F. Supp. 855, March 20, 1981.Google Scholar
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    United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, Eugene Baynes v. United Stales Parole Commission and Warden of Otisville Federal Correctional Institution, No. 86 Civ. 7075, September 9, 1988.Google Scholar
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    See United States of America v. Eugene Baynes, a/k/a “Bo”, James Fox, Eugene Hearn, Russell Barnes, Barthaniel Thornton, William Jefferson, a/k/a “Skinny,” “Terry”, Ferris Foster, Gregory Trice, Misc. No. 74-603, Criminal no. 74-523, United States District Court for the Eastern District Court of Pennsylvania, 400 F. Supp. 285; 1975 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 11587, July 3, 1975.Google Scholar
  107. 119.
    Ibid., p. 7. This is interesting in light of the fact that Robinson was a former leader of the 20th and Carpenter Street gang.Google Scholar
  108. 120.
    Ibid. p. 8.Google Scholar
  109. 121.
  110. 122.
    Baynes v. U.S. Parole Commission, p. 3.Google Scholar
  111. 124.
    Author’s interview with Dutch criminologist and organized crime scholar Frank Bovenkerk, July 1998, Leiden, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  112. 125.
    Confiscated document; contained in the OCU’s “History of Black B. Inc.” report dated March, 1974.Google Scholar
  113. 126.
    Confiscated document; contained in the OCU’s “History of Black B. Inc.” report dated March, 1974.Google Scholar
  114. 127.
    Confiscated minutes from Black Mafia meeting May 30, 1972; contained in the Strike Force’s “Intelligence Summary, Black Organized Crime—Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,” n.d.Google Scholar
  115. 128.
    OCU, Untitled organizational chart, dated July 15, 1973.Google Scholar
  116. 129.
    Confiscated notes from Black Mafia; contained in OCU’s “History of Black B. Inc.,” March 7, 1974. This information was also provided by an informant on November 14, 1973.Google Scholar
  117. 130.
    Ibid., p. 9.Google Scholar

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