Childhood Leukaemia and Radiation: The Sellafield Judgment

  • E. Janet Tawn
  • Richard Wakeford

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Independent Advisory Group (Chairman: Sir Douglas Black), Investigation of the Possible Increased Incidence of Cancer in West Cumbria, HMSO, London (1984).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.W. Stather, A.D. Wrixon, J.R. Simmonds, The risks of leukaemia and other cancers in Seascale from radiation exposure, NRPB-R171, (1984).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. Crouch, Science and trans-science in radiation risk assessment: child cancer around the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Sci. of the Total Env., 53: 201–216 (1986).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.W. Stather, J. Dionian, J. Brown, T.P. Fell, C.R. Muirhead, The risks of leukaemia and other cancers in Seascale from radiation exposure, Addendum to report R171, NRPB-171 Addendum, (1986).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE), First Report, The implications of the new data on the releases from Sellafield in the 1950’s for the conclusions of the Report on the Investigation of the Possible Increased Incidence of Cancer in West Cumbria, HMSO, London (1986).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M.J. Gardner, A.J. Hall, S. Downes, J.D. Terrell, Follow up study of children born elsewhere but attending schools in Seascale, West Cumbria (schools cohort), Br. Med. J., 295: 819–822 (1987).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M.J. Gardner, A.J. Hall, S. Downes, J.D. Terrell, Follow up study of children born to mothers resident in Seascale, West Cumbria (birth cohort), Br. Med. J., 295: 822–827 (1987).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M.A. Heasman, I.W. Kemp, J.D. Urquhart, R. Black, Childhood leukaemia in Northern Scotland, Lancet, 1: 266 (1986).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    E. Roman, V. Beral, L. Carpenter, A. Watson, C. Barton, H. Ryder, D.L. Aston, Childhood leukaemia in the West Berkshire and Basingstoke and North Hampshire District Health Authorities in relation to nuclear establishments in the vicinity, Br. Med J., 294: 597–602 (1987).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE), Second Report, Investigation of the possible increased incidence of leukaemia in young people near the Dounreay nuclear establishment, Caithness, Scotland, HMSO, London (1988).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE), Third Report, Report on the incidence of childhood cancer in the West Berkshire and North Hampshire Area, in which are situated the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston and the Royal Ordnance Factory, Burghfield, HMSO, London (1989).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    M.D. Hill, J.R. Cooper, Radiation doses to members of the population of Thurso, NRPB-R195, (1986).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Dionian, C.R. Muirhead, S.L. Wan, A.D. Wrixon, The risks of leukaemia and other cancers in Thurso from radiation exposure, NRPB-R196, (1986).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Dionian, S.L. Wan, A.D. Wrixon, Radiation doses to members of the public around AWRE Aldermaston, ROF Burghfield and AERE Harwell, NRPB-R202, (1987).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S.L. Wan, A.D. Wrixon, Radiation doses from coal-fired plants in Oxfordshire and Berkshire, NRPB-R203, (1988).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    P.J. Cook-Mozaffari, F.L. Ashwood, T. Vincent, D. Forman, M. Alderson, Cancer incidence and mortality in the vicinity of nuclear installations England and Wales 1959–80 Studies on Medical and Population Subjects No 51, HMSO, London (1987).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. Forman, P. Cook-Mozaffari, S. Darby, G. Davy, I. Stratton, R. Doll, M. Pike, Cancer near nuclear installations, Nature, 329: 499–505 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. Wakeford, K. Binks, D. Wilkie, Childhood leukaemia and nuclear installations, J. R. Statist. Soc. A., 152: 61–86 (1989).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    B. MacMahon, Leukaemia clusters around nuclear facilities in Britain, Cancer Causes Control, 3: 283–288 (1992).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    P. Cook-Mozaffari, S.C. Darby, R. Doll, D. Forman, C. Hermon, M.C. Pike, T.J. Vincent, Geographical variation in mortality from leukaemia and other cancers in England and Wales in relation to proximity to nuclear installations, Br. J. Cancer, 59: 476–485 (1989).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. Cook-Mozaffari, S. Darby, R. Doll, Cancer near potential sites of nuclear installations, Lancet, 2: 1145–1147 (1989).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. J. Gardner, Review of reported increases of childhood cancer rates in the vicinity of nuclear installations in the UK, J. R. Statist. Soc. A., 152: 307–325 (1989).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J.W. Stather, R.H. Clarke, K.P. Duncan, The risk of childhood leukaemia near nuclear establishments, NRPB-R215, HMSO, Chilton (1988).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    T.E. Wheldon, The assessment of risk of radiation-induced childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear installations, J. R. Statist. Soc. A., 152: 327–339 (1989).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    S.C. Darby, R. Doll, Fallout, radiation doses near Dounreay, and childhood leukaemia, Br. Med. J., 294: 603–607 (1987).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S.C. Darby, J.H. Olsen, R. Doll, B. Thakrar, P. deN. Brown, H.H. Storn, L. Barlow, F. Langmark, L. Teppo, H. Tulinius, Trends in childhood leukaemia in the Nordic countries in relation to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, Br. Med. J., 304: 1005–9 (1992).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. Jablon, Z. Hrubec, J.D. Boice, Cancer in populations living near nuclear facilities, A survey of mortality nationwide and incidence in two states, JAMA, 265: 1403–1408 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    C. Hill, A. Laplanche, Overall mortality and cancer mortality around French nuclear sites, Nature, 347: 755–757 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J-N. Hattchouel, A. Laplanche, C. Hill, Leukaemia mortality around French nuclear sites, Br. J. Cancer, 71: 651–653 (1995).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. Michaelis, B. Keller, G. Haaf, E. Kaatsch, Incidence of childhood malignancies in the vicinity of (West) German nuclear power plants, Cancer Causes Control, 3: 255–263 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J.R. McLaughlin, E.A. Clarke, E.D. Nishri, T.W. Anderson, Childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of Canadian nuclear facilities, Cancer Causes Control, 4: 51–58 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    L.A. Walter, B. Turnbull, G. Gustafsson, U. Hjlmars, B. Anderson, Detection and assessment of clusters of a disease and application to nuclear power plant facilities and childhood leukaemia in Sweden, Stat. Med., 14: 3–16 (1995).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    J-F. Viel, D. Pobel, A. Carre, Incidence of leukaemia in young people around the La Hague nuclear waste reprocessing plant: a sensitivity analysis, Stat. Med., 14: 2459–2472 (1995).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    J.F. Bithell, S.J. Dutton, G.J. Draper, N.M. Neary, Distribution of childhood leukaemias and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma near nuclear installations in England and Wales, Br. Med. J., 309: 501–505 (1994).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    M.J. Gardner, M.P. Snee, A.J. Hall, C.A. Powell, S. Downes, J.D. Terrell, Results of case-control study of leukaemia and lymphoma among young people near Sellafield nuclear plant in West Cumbria, Br. Med. J., 300: 423–9 (1990).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    S. Abrahamson, Childhood leukaemia at Sellafield, Radial. Res., 123: 237–8 (1990).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    H.J. Evans, Ionising radiations from nuclear establishments and childhood leukaemias’ an enigma, BioEssays, 12: 541–9 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    S.A. Narod, Radiation genetics and childhood leukaemia, Eur. J. Cancer, 26: 661–4 (1990).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    J.V. Neel, Update on the genetic effects of ionizing radiation, JAMA, 266: 698–701 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    K. Sankaranarayanan, Ionising radiation and genetic risks, IV, Current methods, estimates of risk of Mendelian disease, human data and lessons from biochemical and molecular studies of mutations, Mutat. Res., 258: 75–97 (1991).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    K.F. Baverstock, DNA instability, paternal irradiation and leukaemia in children around Sellafield, Int. J. Radiat. Biol., 60: 581–95 (1991).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP Publication 60), Ann ICRP, 21: 1–3 (1991).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    A.B. Hill, The environment and disease: association or causation? Proc. R. Soc. Med., 58: 295–300 (1965).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    T. Ishimaru, M. Ichimaru, M. Mikami, Leukaemia incidence among individuals exposed in utero, children of atomic bomb survivors, and their controls: Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1945–79, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Tech Rep 11-81 (1981).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    K.S.B. Rose, Pre-1989 epidemiological surveys of low-level dose pre-conception irradiation, J. Radiol. Prot., 10: 177–184 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    X.O. Shu, Y.T. Gao, L.A. Brinton, M.S. Linet, J.T. Tu, W. Zheng, J.F. Fraumeni, A population-based case-control study of childhood leukaemia in Shanghai, Cancer, 62: 635–644 (1988).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    X. Shu, F. Jin, M.S. Linet, W. Zheng, J. Clemens, J. Mills, Y.T. Gao, Diagnostic X-ray and ultrasound exposure and risk of childhood cancer, Br. J. Cancer, 70: 531–536 (1994).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    X. Shu, G.H. Reaman, B. Lampkin, H.N. Sather, T.W. Pendergrass, L.L. Robison & for the investigators of the Children’s Cancer Group, Association of paternal diagnostic X-ray exposure with risk of infant leukaemia, Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 3: 645–653 (1994).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Y. Yoshimoto, J.V. Neel, W.J. Schull, H. Kato, M. Soda, R. Eto, K. Mabuchi, Malignant tumours during the first 2 decades of life in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 46: 1041–1052 (1990).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    M.P. Little, A comparison between the risks of childhood leukaemia from parental exposure to radiation in the Sellafield workforce and those displayed among the Japanese bomb survivors, J. Radiol. Prot., 10: 185–198 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    M.P. Little, A comparison of the apparent risks of childhood leukaemia from parental exposure to radiation in the six months prior to conception in the Sellafield workforce and the Japanese bomb survivors, J. Radiol. Prot., 11: 77–90 (1991).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    J.D. Urquhart, R.J. Black, M.J. Muirhead, L. Sharp, M. Maxwell, O.B. Eden, D.A. Jones, Case-control study of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in children in Caithness near the Dounreay nuclear installation, Br. Med. J., 302: 687–692 (1991).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    P.A. McKinney, F.E. Alexander, R.A. Cartwright, L. Parker, Parental occupations of children with leukaemia in West Cumbria, North Humberside and Gateshead, Br. Med. J., 302: 681–687 (1991).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    J.R. McLaughlin, T.W. Anderson, E.A. Clarke, W. King, Occupational exposure of fathers to ionising radiation and the risk of leukaemia in offspring — a case-control study, AECB Report INFO-0424 (Ottawa Atomic Energy Control Board), (1992).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    J.R. McLaughlin, W.D. King, T.W. Anderson, E.A. Clarke, J.P. Ashmore, Paternal radiation exposure and leukaemia in offspring: the Ontario case-control study, Br. Med. J., 307: 959–966 (1993).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    M.P. Little, A comparison of the risks of leukaemia in the offspring of the Japanese bomb survivors and those of the Sellafield workforce with those in the offspring of the Ontario and Scottish workforces, J. Radiol. Prot., 13: 161–175 (1993).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    L.J. Kinlen, K. Clarke, A. Balkwill, Paternal preconceptional radiation exposure in the nuclear industry and leukaemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in young people in Scotland, Br. Med. J., 306: 1153–1158 (1993).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    L. Parker, A.W. Craft, J. Smith, H. Dickinson, R. Wakeford, K. Binks, D. McElvenny, L. Scott, A. Slovak, Geographical distribution of preconceptional radiation doses to fathers employed at the Sellafield nuclear installation, West Cumbria, Br. Med. J., 307: 966–971 (1993).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    L.J. Kinlen, Can paternal preconceptional radiation account for the increase of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in Seascale? Br. Med. J., 306: 1718–1721 (1993).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Health and Safety Executive, HSE Investigation of leukaemia and other cancers in the children of male workers at Sellafield, HSE, London (1993).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Health and Safety Executive, HSE Investigation of leukaemia and other cancers in the children of male workers at Sellafield: Review of the results published in October 1993, HSE, London (1994).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    M. Andersson, K. Juel, Y. Ishikawa, H.H. Storm, Effects of preconceptional irradiation on mortality and cancer incidence in the offspring of patients given injections of Thorotrast, J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 86: 1866–1870 (1994).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    M.P. Little, R. Wakeford, M.W. Charles, A comparison of the risks of leukaemia in the offspring of the Sellafield workforce born in Seascale and those born elsewhere in West Cumbria with the risks in the offspring of the Ontario and Scottish workforces and the Japanese bomb survivors, J. Radiol. Prot., 14: 187–201 (1994).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    M.P. Little, R. Wakeford, M.W. Charles, M. Andersson, A comparison of the risks of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in the first generation offspring (F1) of the Danish Thorotrast patients with those observed in other studies of parental preconception irradiation, J. Radiol. Prot., 16: 25–36 (1996).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    E. Roman, A. Watson, V. Beral, S. Buckle, D. Bull, K. Baker, H. Ryder, C. Barton, Case-control study of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma among children aged 0–4 years living in West Berkshire and North Hampshire health districts, Br. Med. J., 306: 615–621 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    G.J. Draper, C.A. Stiller, R.A. Cartwright, A.W. Craft, T.J. Vincent, Cancer in Cumbria and in the vicinity of the Sellafield nuclear installation, 1963–90, Br. Med. J., 306: 89–94, 761 (1993).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    A.W. Craft, L. Parker, S. Openshaw, M. Charlton, J. Newall, J.M. Birch, V. Blair, Cancer in young people in the North of England 1968–85: analysis by census wards, J. Epidemiol. Comm. Health, 47: 109–115 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    R. Wakeford, L. Parker, Leukaemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in young persons resident in small areas of West Cumbria in relation to paternal preconceptional irradiation, Br. J. Cancer, 73: 672–679 (1996).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    V. Beral, Leukaemia and nuclear installations: occupational exposure of fathers to radiation may be the explanation, Br. Med. J., 300: 411–412 (1990).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    W.L. Russell, X-ray induced mutations in mice, Cold Spring Harbour Symp Quant. Biol., 16: 327–336 (1951).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    K.G. Luning, A.G. Searle, Estimates of the genetic risks from ionising radiation, Mutat. Res., 12: 291–304 (1971).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    W.L. Russell, L.B. Russell, E.M. Kelly, Radiation dose rate and mutation frequency, Science, 128: 1546–1550 (1958).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, Sources, effects and risks of ionising radiation (UNSCEAR 1988 Report), New York, United Nations, (1988).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, Sources and effects of ionising radiation (UNSCEAR 1993 Report), New York, United Nations, (1993).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    J.V. Neel, W.J. Schull, A.A. Awa. C. Satoh, H. Kato, M. Otake, Y. Yoshimoto, The children of parents exposed to atomic bombs: estimates of the genetic doubling dose of radiation for humans, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 46: 1053–72 (1990).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    J.V. Neel, S.E. Lewis, The comparative radiation genetics of humans and mice, Annu. Rev. Genet., 24: 327–62 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    U.K. Ehling, Genetic risk assessment, Annu. Rev. Genet., 25: 255–89 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    K. Sankaranarayanan, Genetics effects of ionising radiation in man, Ann. ICRP, 22: 75–94 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    R. Wakeford, E.J. Tawn, D.M. McElvenny, L.E. Scott, K. Binks, L. Parker, H. Dickinson, J. Smith, The descriptive statistics and health implications of occupational radiation doses received by men at the Sellafield nuclear installation before the conception of their children, J. Radiol. Prot., 14: 3–16 (1994).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    R. Wakeford, E.J. Tawn, D.M. McElvenny, K. Binks, L.E. Scott, L. Parker, The Seascale childhood leukaemia cases — the mutation rates implied by paternal preconceptional radiation doses, J. Radiol. Prot., 14: 17–24 (1994).Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    E.J. Tawn, Leukaemia and Sellafield: is there a heritable link?, J. Med. Genet., 32: 251–256 (1995).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    W.L. Russell, E.M. Kelly, Mutation frequencies in male mice and the estimation of genetic hazards of radiation in man, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 79: 542–4 (1982).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    K. Sankaranarayanan, Ionising radiation and genetic risks, III, Nature of spontaneous and radiation-induced mutations in mammalian in vitro systems and mechanisms of induction by radiation, Mutat. Res., 258: 75–97 (1991).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    J. Thacker, Radiation-induced mutation in mammalian cells at low doses and dose rates, Adv. Radiat. Bioi., 16: 77–124 (1992).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    C.A. Felix, D. D’Amico, T. Mitsudomi, M.M. Nau, F.P. Li, J.F. Jr. Fraumeni, D.E. Cole, J. McCalla, G.H. Reaman, J. Whang-Peng et al., Absence of hereditary p53 mutation in 10 familial leukaemia pedigrees, J. Clin. Invest., 90: 653–8 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    G.J. Draper, General overview of studies of multigeneration carcinogenesis in man, particularly in relation to exposure to chemicals, In: Perinatal and multigeneration carcinogenesis, N.P. Napalkow, J.M. Rice, L. Tomatis, H. Yamasaki, eds. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp275–88 (1989).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    M.M. Hawkins, G.J. Draper, D.L. Winter, Cancer in the offspring of survivors of childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, Br. J. Cancer, 71: 1335–9 (1995).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    C.A. Stiller, P.A. McKinney, K.J. Bunch, C.C. Bailey, I.J. Lewis, Childhood cancer in ethnic groups in Britain, a United Kingdom childrens cancer study group (UKCCSG) study, Br. J. Cancer, 64: 543–8 (1991).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    R. Doll, H.J. Evans, S.C. Darby, Paternal exposure not to blame, Nature, 367: 678–80 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    A.M. Ford, S.A. Ridge, M.E. Cabrera, H. Mahmoud, C.M. Steel, L.C. Chan, M. Greaves, In utero rearrangements in the trithorax-related oncogene in infant leukaemias, Nature, 363: 358–60 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    T.H. Rabitts, Chromosomal translocations in cancer, Nature, 372: 143–9 (1994).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    J.M. Adams, S. Cory, Transgenic models of tumour development, Science, 254: 1161–6 (1991).Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    N. Heisterkamp, G. Jenster, D. Kioussis, P.K. Pattengale, J. Groffen, Human bcr-abl gene has a lethal effect on embryogenesis, Transgenic Res., 1: 45–53 (1991).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    R. Weinberg, Tumour suppressor genes, Science, 254: 1138–46 (1991).Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    A.G. Knudson, Hereditary cancer oncogenes, and antioncogenes, Cancer Res., 45: 1437–43 (1985).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    G.M. Taylor, G.M. Birch, The hereditary basis of human leukaemia, In: Leukaemia 6th ed, E.S. Henderson, T.A. Lister, M.F. Greaves, eds. W.B. Saunders Co. USA pp 210–245 (1996).Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    D. Malkin, p53 and the Li-Fraumeni syndrome [Review], Cancer Genet. Cytogenet., 66: 83–92 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    J.V. Neel, Problem of “false positive” conclusions in genetic epidemiology: lessons from the leukaemia cluster near the Sellafield nuclear installation, Genet. Epid., 11: 213–233 (1994).Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    K.P. Jones, A.W. Wheater, Obstetric outcomes in West Cumberland Hospital: is there a risk from Sellafield? J. R. Soc. Med., 82: 524–7 (1989).Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    M. Greaves, Infant leukaemia biology, aetiology and treatment, Leukaemia, 10: 372–377 (1996).Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    G. de The, The etiology of Burkitťs lymphoma and the history of the shaken dogmas, Blood Cells, 19: 667–673 (1993).Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    M. Subar, A. Ner, G. Inghirami, D.M. Knowles, R. Dalla-Favera, Frequent c-myc oncogene activation and infrequent presence of Epstein-Barr virus genome in AIDS — associated lymphoma, Blood, 72: 667–671 (1988).Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    M. Tibebu, A. Polliack, Familial lymphomas, a review of the literature with report of cases in Jerusalem, Leukaemia and Lymphoma, 1: 195–201 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    T. Nomura, Paternal exposure to radiation and offspring cancer in mice: reanalysis and new evidences, J. Radiat. Res. Suppl., 2: 64–72 (1991).Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    T. Nomura, Role of DNA damage and repair in carcinogenesis, In: Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens, T. Sugimura, S. Kondo, H. Takebe, Liss, eds New York, pp 223–230 (1982).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    T. Nomura, Sensitivity of a lung cell in the developing mouse embryo to tumour induction by urethan, Cancer Res., 34: 3363–3372 (1974).Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    G.E. Cosgrove, P.B. Selby, A.C. Upton, T.J. Mitchell, M.H. Stell, W.L. Russell, Lifespan and autopsy findings in the first generation offspring of X-irradiated male mice, Mutat. Res., 319: 71–9 (1993).Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    B.M. Cattanach, G. Patrick, D. Papworth, D.T. Goodhead, T. Hacker, L. Cobb, E. Whitehill, Investigation of lung tumour induction in BALB/cJ mice following paternal X-irradiation, Int. J. Radiat. Biol., 67, 5: 607–615 (1995).Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    T. Nomura, Further studies on X-ray and chemically induced germ-line alternations causing tumours and malformations in mice, In: Genetic Toxicology of Environmental Chemicals, part B: Genetic Effects and Applied Mutagenesis, C. Ramel, ed Alan R. Liss, New York, pp13–20 (1986).Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    L. Tomatis, Transgenerational carcinogenesis: A review of the experimental and epidemiological evidence, Jpn. J. Cancer Res., 85: 443–454 (1994).Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    P.B. Selby, Experimental induction of dominant mutations in mammals by ionising radiations and chemicals, In: Issues and Reviews in Teratology 5, H. Kalter, ed Plenum, New York, 181–253 (1990).Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    V.S. Turosov, E. Cardis, Review of experiments on multigenerational carcinogenicity: of design, experimental models and analyses, In: Perinatal and Multigeneration Carcinogenesis, N.P. Napalkov, J.M. Rice, L. Tomatis, H. Yamasaki, eds IARC Lyon, pp105–120 (1989).Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    E.J. Hall, Radiobology for the Radiologist, J.B. Lippincott Company, New York, (1988).Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    D.J. Brenner, E.J. Hall, The inverse dose dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by neutrons and charged particles: a plausible interpretation consistent with published data, Int. J. Radiat Biol., 58: 745–58 (1990).Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    A.G. Searle, Mutation induction in mice, Adv. Radiat. Biol., 4: 131–207 (1974).Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    R. Cox, Transgeneration carcinogenesis: are there genes that break the rules? NRPB Radiol. Prot. Bull., 129: 15–23 (1992).Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    B.A. Dombroski, S.L. Mathias, E. Nanthakumar, A.F. Scott, H.J. Jr. Kazazian, Isolation of an active human transposable element, Science, 254: 1805–9 (1991).Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Y.E. Dubrova, A.J. Jeffrey, A.M. Malashenko, Mouse minisatellite mutations induced by ionising radiation, Nature Genetics, 5: 92–94 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Y.J. Fan, Z. Wang, S. Sadamoto, Y. Ninomiya, N. Kotomura, K. Kamiya, K. Dohi, R. Kominami, O. Niwa, Dose-response of a radiation induction of a germline mutation at a hypervariable mouse minisatellite locus, Int. J. Radial. Biol., 68: 177–183 (1995).Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Y.E. Dubrova, V.N. Nesteroc, N.G. Krouchinsky, V.A. Ostapenko, R. Nenmann, D.L. Neil, A.J. Jeffreys, Human minisatellite mutation rate after the Chernobyl accident, Nature, 380: 683–686 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    M. Kodaira, C. Satoh, K. Hiyama, K. Toyama, Lack of effects of atomic bomb radiation and genetic instability of tandem-repetitive elements in human germ cells, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 57: 1275–1283 (1995).Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    T.G. Krontiris, Minisatellites and human disease, Science, 269: 1682–1683 (1995).Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    G.R. Sutherland, R.N. Simmers, No statistical association between common fragile sites and non-random chromosome breakpoints in cancer cells, Cancer Genet. Cytogenet., 31: 9–15 (1988).Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    R.I. Richards, G.R. Sutherland, Dynamic mutations: a new class of mutations causing human disease, Cell, 70: 709–12 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    J.G. Hall, Genomic imprinting: Review and relevance to human diseases, Am. J. Genet., 46: 857–873 (1990).Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    O.A. Haas, A. Argyriou-Tirita, T. Lion, Parental origin of chromosomes involved in the translocation t(9∶22), Nature, 359: 414–6 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    T. Floretos, N. Heisterkamp, J. Groffen, No evidence for genomic imprinting of the human BCR gene, Blood, 83: 3441–4 (1994).Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Reay v British Nuclear Fuels plc; Hope v British Nuclear Fuels plc (QBD: French J), Medical Law Reports, 5: 1–55 (1994).Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    R. Wakeford, E.J. Tawn, Childhood leukaemia and Sellafield: the legal cases, J. Radiol. Prot., 14: 293–316 (1994).Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    L.J. Kinlen, Epidemiological evidence for an infective basis in childhood leukaemia, Br. J. Cancer, 71: 1–5 (1995).Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    L.J. Kinlen, M. Dixon, C.A. Stiller, Childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma near large rural construction sites, with a comparison with Sellafield nuclear site, Br. Med. J., 310: 763–768 (1995).Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, Sources and effects of ionising radiation (UNSCEAR 1994 Reports), New York: United Nations, (1994).Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE), Fourth Report, The incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site, West Cumbria: Further studies and an update of the situation since the publication of the report of the Black Advisory Group in 1984, HMSO, London, (1996).Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    J.R. Simmonds, C.A. Robinson, A. Phipps, C.R.I. Muirhead, F.A. Fry, Risks of leukaemia and other cancers in Seascale from all sources of ionising radiation exposure, NRPB-R276, (1995).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Janet Tawn
    • 1
  • Richard Wakeford
    • 2
  1. 1.Westlakes Research InstituteCumbriaUK
  2. 2.British Nuclear Fuels plcWarringtonUK

Personalised recommendations