Recommended Dietary Intakes for Trace Elements

New Trends
  • Janet C. King


New knowledge about trace element metabolism and changes in dietary habits dictate a need for a new approach in setting dietary standards. The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine has developed a new paradigm for setting dietary standards that involves the use of functional endpoints and multiple reference intakes for each age and gender group. Application of this paradigm to trace element dietary standards will be difficult because of the following limitations: Lack of specific, sensitive, functional indicators of dietary requirements for trace elements.

Little information on the functional or homeostatic response to chronically low or high trace element intakes.

Limited knowledge of the requirements of children, infants, and pregnant and lactating women.

Absence of a clear model for how to deal with trace element interactions. Future research in trace element nutrition should be designed to address these limitations.


Dietary Standard Zinc Intake Recommend Dietary Allowance Dietary Reference Intake Adverse Effect Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Harper, A.E. 1987, Evolution of Recommended Dietary Allowances—New Directions? Annual Review of Nutrition.7:509–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Institute of Medicine. 1997, Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  3. Institue of Medicine. 1998b, Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  4. World Health Organization. 1996, Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  5. Institute of Medicine. 1998, Dietary Reference Intakes: A Risk Assessment Model for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  6. Mertz, W., Abernathy, C.O., and Olin, S.S. 1994, Risk Assessment of Essential Elements. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janet C. King
    • 1
  1. 1.USDA Western Human Nutrition Research CenterUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations