Selenium and Fluoride Toxicology

Water Quality Guidelines for Dohne Merino Sheep in Southern Africa
  • J. A. Meyer
  • N. H. Casey


Successful livestock production is dependent on the provision of water with a specific chemical composition. The aim of a WQG is to recommend what the composition should be, not just to prevent adverse effects, but to achieve optimal water utilisation. It is concluded that under the trial conditions experienced in this study, adverse effects due to the provision of F in the drinking water to a concentration of 20 mg/L from birth to slaughter weight, may be mitigated by use of B as an alleviator at a concentration of ca. 25 mg/L. Where water [F] is marginal in terms of being potentially hazardous, it is concluded that 25 mgB/L will not in itself result in any adverse effects and can thus be recommended for use over the production phase used. Based on growth, histopathological and whole blood [Se] results and reduced synergistic factors in the trial design, it is concluded that drinking water containing 0–1 mgSe/L with a maximum total ingestion of 3.884 mg Se/sheep/d and [Cu ]of <0.001 mg/L, used for mutton production over the period of weaning to slaughter weight, could be recommended for use.


Dental Fluorosis Water Quality Guideline Slaughter Weight Water Affair Water Quality Constituent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adelaar, T.F., 1974, Veeartsnykunde Onderstepoort (Reuter and Gouws, 1974).Google Scholar
  2. Borehole Water Association of Southern Africa, 1990, Groundwater—Guidelines for Boreholes. Compiled by Borehole Water Association of Southern Africa, CSIR (Ematek), Department of Agricultural Development, Department of Water Affairs and the Geological Society of South Africa. CSIR (Ematek), Pretoria. 3–27.Google Scholar
  3. Casey, N.H., Meyer, J.A., and Coetzee, C.B., 1998, An investigation into the quality of water for livestock production with the emphasis on subterranean water and the development of a water quality guideline index system. Water Research Commission. Project No K5/644/1/98. ISBN No: 1 86845 739 0. Vol. 1:1–37.Google Scholar
  4. DWA&F, 1991, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Water Quality Management policies and strategies in the RSA. Pretoria.Google Scholar
  5. DWA&F, 1993, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, South African Water Quality Guidelines (1st edn.) Agricultural Use: Livestock Watering. 67–134.Google Scholar
  6. DWA&F, 1996, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, South African Water Quality Guidelines (2nd edn.) Vol. 4: Agricultural Use: Livestock WateringGoogle Scholar
  7. Elsair, J., Merad, R., Denine, R., Reggabi, M., Alamir, B., Benali, S., Azzouz, M., and Khelfat, K., 1980, Boron as an antidote in acute and subacute fluoride intoxication in rabbits: its action on fluoride and calcium-phosphorus metabolism. Fluoride. 13:129–138.Google Scholar
  8. Ensminger, M.E., Olfield, J.E., and Heinemann, W.W., 1990, Feeds and Nutrition, (2nd edn.). The Ensminger Publishing Co., California. 168–169.Google Scholar
  9. Galvin, R.F., 1996, Occurrence of metals in waters: An overview. Water SA. Vol. 22(1):16.Google Scholar
  10. Hart, B.U., Angehern-Bettinnazzi, C., Campbell, I.C., and Jones, M.J., 1992, Australian Water Quality Guidelines. Australian and New Zealand Environmental and Conservation Council. Draft for public comment.Google Scholar
  11. Kempster, P.L., Hattingh, W.H.J., and van Vliet, H.R., 1985, Summarized Water Quality Criteria. Dept of Agriculture and Water Affairs, Hydrological Research Institute. Technical Report TR 108.Google Scholar
  12. Marincowitz, G. and Conradie, W.J., 1985, Boorgatwater vir Veesuipings op Soutpanproefplaas. Department of Agriculture and Water Affairs, Transvaal Region. Agrivaal 7(4):1–5.Google Scholar
  13. Meyer, J.A., Casey, N.H., and Coetzee, C.B., 1997, Water quality guidelines for livestock watering in Southern Africa. Water SA. Vol. 23(1):7–12.Google Scholar
  14. Oldfield, J.E., Burau, R., Moller, G., Ohlendorf, H.M., and Ulrey, D., 1994, Risks and benefits of selenium in agriculture. Issue paper supplement No 3, Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, Ames IA, USA.Google Scholar
  15. Parsons, R. and Tredoux, G., 1993, The Development of a Strategy to Monitor Groundwater Quality on a National Scale. Water Research Commission. Report No. 428/1/93. 4–22.Google Scholar
  16. Pehrson, B., 1993, Diseases and diffuse disorders related to selenium deficiences in ruminants. Norwegian J.Agric.Sci., Suppl. 11. 79.Google Scholar
  17. Ramsay, K.A., Reed, D.S., Bothma, A.J., and Lepen, M.J., 1994, Profitable and environmentally effective farming with early domesticated livestock in Southern Africa. Conservation of Early Domesticated Animals of Southern Africa. Conference held at Willem Prinsloo Agricultural Museum, 3–4 March, 1994. 105–136.Google Scholar
  18. Smith, R., 1988, Water Quality Criteria for Livestock Watering and Human Consumption. CSIR: Division of Water Technology. Project No. 670 2170 9.Google Scholar
  19. Van Ryssen, J.B.J., de Villiers, J.F., and Coertze, R.J., 1998, Supplementation of selenium to sheep grazing kikuyu or ryegrass. I. Selenium status of unsupplemented sheep and animal performance upon supplementation. S.Afr.J.Anim.Sci. (In press)Google Scholar
  20. Van Staden, J. and Janse van Rensburg, S.D., 1991, Improvement on the microdiffusion technique for the determination of ionic and ionisable fluoride in cows milk. Analyst 116:807–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wheeler, S.M. and Fell, L.R., 1983, Fluoride in Cattle Nutrition. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews—Series B. Commonwealth Bureau of Nutrition. 53(12):741–766.Google Scholar
  22. Williams, M.C., 1990, The pathology of experimental Lasiospermum Bipinnatum (thunb.) druce poisoning in sheep. I. Hepatic lesions. Onderstepoort J.Vet. Res. 57:249.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. Meyer
    • 1
  • N. H. Casey
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Animal and Wildlife SciencesUniversity of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations