Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Belyaev, D.K., 1979, Destabilizing selection as a factor in domestication, J. of Heredity 70: 301–308.Google Scholar
  2. Blount, B.G., 1990, Issues in bonobo (Pan paniscus) sexual behavior, Amer. Anthro. 92: 702–714.Google Scholar
  3. Coolidge, H.J., 1933, Pan paniscus: Pygmy chimpanzee from south of the Congo River, Amer. J. of Phys. Anthro. 18: 1–57.Google Scholar
  4. Coppinger, R. and Schneider R., 1995, Evolution of working dogs. Pp. 21–50 in: (Ed. J. Serpell), The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behaviour, and Interactions with People, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Cramer, D.L., 1977, Craniofacial morphology of Pan paniscus: A morphometric and evolutionary appraisal, Contributions to Primatol. 10: 1–64.Google Scholar
  6. Dahl, J., 1986, Cyclic perineal swelling during the intermenstrual intervals of captive female pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus), J. of Hum. Evol. 15: 369–385.Google Scholar
  7. Groves, C.P., 1970, Gorillas, London: Arthur Baker.Google Scholar
  8. Groves, C.P., 1986, Systematics of the great apes. Pp. 187–217 in: Comparative Primate Biology, Vol. 1: Systematics, Evolution and Anatomy, New York: Alan R. Liss.Google Scholar
  9. Groves, C.P., 1988, The evolutionary ecology of the Hominoidea, Annuario de Psicología 39: 87–98.Google Scholar
  10. Hartwig-Scherer, S., 1993, Allometry in Hominoids: A Comparative Study of Skeletal Growth Trends. Ph.D. dissertation, Zurich University, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  11. Hemmer, H., 1990, Domestication: The Decline of Environmental Appreciation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Izor, R.J., Walchuk, S.L., and Wilkins, L., 1981, Anatomy and systematic significance of the penis of the pygmy chimpanzee, Pan paniscus, Folia Primatologica 35: 218–224.Google Scholar
  13. Johnson, S.C., 1981, Bonobos: Generalized hominid prototypes or specialized insular dwarfs? Current Anthro. 22: 363–375.Google Scholar
  14. Jungers, W.L. and Susman, R.L., 1984, Body size and skeletal allometry in African apes. Pp. 131–178 in: (Ed. R.L. Susman), The Pygmy Chimpanzee, New York, Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  15. Kano, T., 1992, The Last Ape: Pygmy Chimpanzee Behavior and Ecology, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Kappelman, J., 1996, The evolution of body mass and relative brain size in fossil hominids, J. of Hum. Evol. 30: 243–276.Google Scholar
  17. Kinzey, W.G., 1984, The dentition of the pygmy chimpanzee, Pan paniscus. Pp. 65–88 in: (Ed. R.L. Susman), The Pygmy Chimpanzee, New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  18. Laitman, J.T. and Heimbuch, R.C., 1984, A measure of basicranial flexion in Pan paniscus, the pygmy chimpanzee. Pp. 49–64 in: (Ed. R.L. Susman), The Pygmy Chimpanzee, New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  19. Latimer, B.M., White, T.D., Kimbel, W.H., and Johanson, D.C., 1981, The pygmy chimpanzee is not a living missing link in human evolution, J. of Hum. Evol. 10: 475–488.Google Scholar
  20. Leigh, S.R. and Shea, B.T., 1996, Ontogeny of body size variation in African apes, Amer. J. of Phys. Anthro. 99: 43–65.Google Scholar
  21. McHenry, H.M., 1984, The common ancestor: A study of the postcranium of Pan paniscus, Australopithecus and other hominoids. Pp. 201–232 in: (Ed. R.L. Susman), The Pygmy Chimpanzee. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  22. McHenry, H.M., 1992, How big were early hominids?, Evolutionary Anthro. 1: 15–20.Google Scholar
  23. McHenry, H.M. and Corruccini, R.S., 1981, Pan paniscus and human evolution, Amer. J. of Phys. Anthro. 54: 355–367.Google Scholar
  24. Pilbeam, D.R., 1996, Genetic and morphological records of the hominoidea and hominid origins: A synthesis, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 5: 155–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Richmond, B.G. and Strait, D.G., 2000, Evidence that humans evolved from a knuckle-walking ancestor, Nature 404: 382–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ruvolo, M., 1997, Molecular phylogeny of the hominoids: Inferences from multiple independent DNA sequence data sets, Molecular Biology and Evolution 14: 248–265.Google Scholar
  27. Schultz, A.H., 1941, Relative size of the cranial capacity in primates, Amer. J. of Phys. Anthro. 28: 273–287.Google Scholar
  28. Shea, B.T., 1981, Relative growth of the limbs and trunk of the African apes, Amer. J. of Phys. Anthro. 56: 179–202.Google Scholar
  29. Shea, B.T., 1983, Paedomorphosis and neoteny in the pygmy chimpanzee, Science 222: 521–522.Google Scholar
  30. Shea, B.T., 1984a, Between the gorilla and the chimpanzee: A history of debate concerning the existence of the kooloo-kamba or gorilla-like chimpanzee, J. of Ethnobiology 4: 1–13.Google Scholar
  31. Shea, B.T., 1984b, An allometric perspective on the morphological and evolutionary relationships between pygmy (Pan paniscus) and common (Pan troglodytes) chimpanzees. Pp. 89–130 in: (Ed. R.L. Susman), The Pygmy Chimpanzee, New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  32. Shea, B.T., 1986, Scapula form and locomotion in chimpanzee evolution, Amer. J. of Phys. Anthro. 70: 475–488.Google Scholar
  33. Shea, B.T., 1989, Heterochrony in human evolution: The case for neoteny reconsidered, Yearbook of Phys. Anthro. 32: 69–104.Google Scholar
  34. Smith, R.J. and Jungers, W.L., 1997, Body mass in comparative primatology, J. of Hum. Evol. 32: 523–559.Google Scholar
  35. Smuts, B.B. and Smuts, R.W., 1993, Male aggression and sexual coercion of females in nonhuman primates and other mammals: Evidence and theoretical implications, Advances in the Study of Behavior 22: 1–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Socha, W.W., 1984, Blood groups of pygmy and common chimpanzees: A comparative study. Pp. 13–42 in: (Ed. R.L. Susman), The Pygmy Chimpanzee, New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  37. Stanford, C.B., 1998, The social behavior of chimpanzees and bonobos: Empirical evidence and shifting assumptions, Current Anthro. 39: 399–407.Google Scholar
  38. Stanyon, R., Chiarelli, B., Gottlieb, K., and Patton, W.H., 1986, The phylogenetic and taxonomic status of Pan paniscus: A chromosomal perspective, Amer. J. of Phys. Anthro. 69: 489–498.Google Scholar
  39. Taylor, A.B., 1997, Scapula form and biomechanics in gorillas, J. of Hum. Evol. 33: 529–553.Google Scholar
  40. Tuttle, R.S., 1968, Quantitative and functional studies on the hands of the Anthropoidea. I: The Hominoidea, J. of Morphology 128: 309–364.Google Scholar
  41. Tuttle, R.S., 1975, Parallellism, brachiation, and hominoid phylogeny. Pp. 447–480 in: (Eds. W.P. Luckett and F.S. Szalay), Phylogeny of the Primates, New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  42. de Waal, F.B.M., 1982, Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex Among Apes, New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  43. de Waal, F.B.M., 1990, Sociosexual behavior used for tension regulation in all age and sex combinations among bonobos. Pp. 378–393 in: (Ed. T. Feierman), Pedophilia: Biosocial Dimensions, New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  44. de Waal, F.B.M., 1998, “Comment” on Stanford (1998), Current Anthro. 39: 407–408.Google Scholar
  45. de Waal, F.B.M. and Lanting, F., 1996, Bonobo: The Forgotten Ape, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  46. White, T.D., Suwa, G., Asfaw, B., 1994, Australopithecus ramidus, a new species of early hominid from Aramis, Ethiopia, Nature 371: 306–312.Google Scholar
  47. Whiten, A., Goodall, J., McGrew, W.C., Nishida, T., Reynolds, V., Sugiyama, Y., Tutin, C.E.G., Wrangham, R.W., and Boesch, C., 1999, Chimpanzee cultures, Nature 399: 682–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wood, B., 1994a, The oldest hominid yet, Nature 371: 280–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wood, B., 1994b, The age of australopithecines, Nature 372: 31–32.Google Scholar
  50. Wrangham, R.W., 1986, Ecology and social evolution in two species of chimpanzees. Pp. 352–378 in: (Eds. D.I. Rubenstein and R.W. Wrangham), Ecology and Social Evolution: Birds and Mammals, Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Wrangham, R.W., 1993, The evolution of sexuality in chimpanzees and bonobos, Human Nature 4: 47–79.Google Scholar
  52. Wrangham, R.W., 1999, The evolution of coalitionary killing, Yearbook of Physical Anthro. 42: 1–30.Google Scholar
  53. Wrangham, R.W., 2000, Why are male chimpanzees more gregarious than mothers? A scramble competition hypothesis. Pp. 248–258 in: (Ed. P. Kappeler), Male Primates, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Wrangham, R.W. and Peterson, D., 1996, Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Violence, Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  55. Wrangham, R.W., Jones, J.H., Laden, G., Pilbeam, D., and Conklin-Brittain, N.L., 1999, The raw and the stolen: Cooling and the ecology of human origins, Current Anthro. 40: 567–594.Google Scholar
  56. Zihlman, A.L., 1978, Women and evolution, Part II: Subsistence and social organization among early hominids, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 4: 4–20.Google Scholar
  57. Zihlman, A.L., 1979, Pygmy chimpanzee morphology and the interpretation of early hominids, S. African J. of Sci. 75: 165–168.Google Scholar
  58. Zihlman, A.L., 1996a, Reconstructions reconsidered: Chimpanzee models and human evolution. Pp. 293–304 in: (Eds. W.C. McGrew, L.F. Marchant, and T. Nishida), Great Ape Societies, New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Zihlman, A.L., 1996b, Looking back in anger, Nature 384: 35–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zihlman, A.L. and Cramer, D.L., 1978, Skeletal differences between pygmy (Pan paniscus) and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Folia Primatologica 29: 86–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zihlman, A.L., Cronin, J.E., Cramer, D.L., and Sarich, V.M., 1978, Pygmy chimpanzee as a possible prototype for the common ancestor of humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas, Nature 275: 744–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Wrangham
    • 1
  • D. Pilbeam
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anthropology, Peabody MuseumHarvard UniversityCambridge

Personalised recommendations