“2+1” Pulse Sequence as Apllied for Distance and Spatial Distribution Measurements of Paramagnetic Centers

  • A. Raitsimring
Part of the Biological Magnetic Resonance book series (BIMR, volume 19)


Applications of one of the varieties of electron spin-echo method, the “2+1” pulse sequence used for the measurement of distances in radical pairs with fixed and distributed distances, and for the determination of the parameters of spatial distribution in more complicated cases (fractals, clusters, non-random distributions) are discussed. Special attention is given to features of the “2+1” technique such as suppression of dipolar interactions of randomly distributed spins, which allows the selection of a dipolar interaction between radical labels in proteins, even if protein molecules aggregate. Experimental conditions that allow the separation of nuclear modulation from electron dipolar related modulation, or minimize the appearance of ESEEM in a “2+1” experiment are also discussed.


Pulse Sequence Dipolar Interaction Paramagnetic Center Pulse Parameter Nitroxide Radical 
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© Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Raitsimring
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

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