Fluorescence Quenching: Theory and Applications

  • Maurice R. Eftink
Part of the Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy book series (TIFS, volume 2)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    S. S. Lehrer, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 29, 767–772 (1967).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. S. Lehrer, Biochemistry 10, 3254–3263 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    F. W. J. Teale and R. A. Badley, Biochem. J. 116, 341–348 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. N. Ivkova, N. S. Vedenkina, and E. A. Burstein, Mol. Biol. 5, 214–224 (1971).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. F. Chen, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 158, 605–622 (1973).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    W. M. Vaughan and G. Weber, Biochemisty 9 464–473 (1970).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. R. Sellers and C. A. Ghiron, Photochem. Photobiol. 18, 393–402 (1973).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. S. Lehrer and P. C. Leavis, Methods Enzymol. 49, 222–236 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. R. Eftink and C. A. Ghiron, Anal. Biochem. 114, 199–227 (1981).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Chapter 9, Plenum Press, New York (1983).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. P. Denchenko, Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Proteins, Chapter 8, Springer-Verlag, New York (1987).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    E. A. Burnstein, N. S. Vendenkina, and M. N. Ivkova, Photochem. Photobiol. 18, 263–279 (1973).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Weller, Progr. React. Kinet. 1, 187–214 (1961).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. M. Noyes, Prog. React. Kinet. 1, 129–160 (1961).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. B. Birks, in: Organic Molecular Photophysics (J. B. Birks, ed.), pp. 409–613, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1975).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. H. Alwatter, M. D. Lumb, and J. B. Birks, in: Organic Molecular Photophysics (J. B. Birks, ed.), Vol. 1, Chapter 8, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1973).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. R. Eftink and C. A. Ghiron, Biochemistry 23, 3891–3899 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. Porter and M. W. Windsor, Proc. Roy. Soc. A 245, 238 (1958).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. A. Green, L. A. Singer, and J. H. Parks, J. Chem. Phys. 58, 2690–2695 (1973).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. F. Steiner and E. P. Kirby, J. Phys. Chem. 73, 4130–413 (1969).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. M. Froehlich and K. Nelson, J. Phys. Chem. 82, 2401–2403 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. R. Eftink, T. Selva, and Z. Wasylewski, Photochem. Photobiol. 46, 23–30 (1987).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    D. A. Labiana, G. N. Taylor, and G. S. Hammond, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 3679–3683 (1972).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    D. O. Cowan and R. L. E. Drisko, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 92, 6281–6285 (1970).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. R. Watkins, J. Phys. Chem. 78, 2555–2558 (1974).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. R. Lakowicz and G. Weber, Biochemistry 12, 4161–4170 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Jullien, J.-R. Garel, F. Merola, and J.-C. Brochon, Eur. Biophys. J. 13, 131–137 (1986).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    N. Mafaga and M. Ottolenghi, in: Molecular Associations (R. Foster, ed.), Vol. 2, pp. 17–78, Academic Press, New York (1979).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    E. E. Johnson, J. Phys. Chem. 84, 2940–2946 (1980).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. Ahmad and G. Durocher, Photochem. Photobiol. 34, 573–578 (1981).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    W. R. Ware and J. S. Novros, J. Phys. Chem. 70, 2346–3253 (1966).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    T. L. Nemzek and W. R. Ware, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 477–489 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    J. C. Andre, M. Niclause, and W. R. Ware, Chem. Phys. 28, 371–377 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. V. Smoluchowski, Z. Phys. Chem. 92, 129–168 (1917).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    B. Sveshnikoff, Acta Physicochim. U.R.S.S. 3, 257 (1935).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    F. C. Collins and G. E. Kimball, J. Colloid Sci. 4, 425–439 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    J. Yguerabide, M. A. Dillon, and M. Burton, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 3040–3052 (1964); J. Yguerabide, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 3049–3061 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    R. W. W. van Resandt, Chem. Phys. Lett. 95, 205–208 (1983).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. R. Lakowicz, M. L. Johnson, I. Gryczynski, N. Joshi, and G. Laczko, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 3277–3284 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    M. R. Eftink and C. A. Ghiron, J. Phys. Chem. 80, 486–493 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    J. R. Lakowicz, N. B. Joshi, M. L. Johnson, H. Szmacinski, and I. Gryczynski, J. Biol. Chem. 262, 10907–10910 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    M. L. Johnson, J. R. Lakowicz, N. Joshi, and I. Gryczynski, Biophys. J. 51, 286a (1987).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    D. Peak, T. C. Werner, R. M. Dennin, Jr., and J. R. Baird, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 3328–3335 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. Keizer, J. Phys. Chem. 85, 940–941 (1981).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    J. Keizer, Acc. Chem. Res. 18, 235–241 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    R. I. Cukier, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 4115–4117 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    P. Midoux, P. Wahl, J.-C. Auchet, and M. Monsigny, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 801, 16–25 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    T. Ando and H. Asai, J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 88, 255–264 (1980).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    T. Ando, H. Fujisak, and H. Asai, J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 88, 265–276 (1980).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    A. R. Horrocks, A. Kearvell, K. Tickle, and F. Wilkinson, Trans. Faraday Soc. 62, 3393–3399 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    M. R. Eftink and C. A. Ghiron, Biochemistry 15, 672–680 (1976).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    J. R. Lakowicz and G. Weber, Biochemistry 12, 4171–4179 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    A. Follenius and D. Gerard, Photochem. Photobiol. 38, 373–376 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    L. Stryer, D. D. Thomas, and C. F. Meares, Anna. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 11, 203–222 (1982).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    A. M. Kleinfeld, Biochemistry 24, 1874–1882 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    J. R. Lakowicz, B. Maliwal, H. Cherek, and A. Baiter, Biochemistry 22, 1741–1752 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    K. A. Hagaman and M. R. Eftink, Biophys. Chem. 20, 201–207 (1984).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    B. P. Maliwal and J. R. Lakowicz, Biophys. Chem. 19, 337–344 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    M. R. Eftink, Z. Wasylewski, and C. A. Ghiron, Biochemistry 26, 8338–8346 (1987).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    M. R. Eftink, Biophys. J. 43, 323–334 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    D. R. James, D. R. Demmer, R. P. Steer, and R. E. Verrall, Biochemistry 24, 5517–5526 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    D. M. Jameson, E. Gratton, and J. F. Eccleston, Biochemistry 26, 3894–3901 (1987).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    G. Sanyal, C. Charlesworth, R. J. Ryan, and F. G. Prendergast, Biochemistry 26, 1860–1866 (1987).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    M. J. S. Dewolf, M. Fridkin, and L. D. Kohn, J. Biol. Chem. 256, 5489–5496 (1981).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    L. McDowell, G. Sanyal, and F. G. Prendergast, Biochemistry 24, 2979–2984 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    R. D. Ludescher, J. J. Volwerk, G. H. de Hass, and B. S. Hudson, Biochemistry 24, 7240–7249 (1985).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    S. S. Lehrer, Biophys. J. 11, 72a (1971).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    D. A. Johnson and J. Yguerabide, Biophys. J. 48, 949–955 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    D. G. Shoup, G. Lipari, and A. Szabo, Biophys. J. 36, 697–714 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    H. Miyata and H. Asai, J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 90, 133–139 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    M. R. Eftink and C. A. Ghiron, Biophys. J. 53, 290a (1988).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    R. Mallinson, R. Carter, and C. A. Ghiron, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 671, 117–122 (1981).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    M. R. Eftink and C. A. Ghiron, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci U.S.A. 72, 3290–3294 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    L. X. Q. Chen, J. W. Longworth, and G. R. Fleming, Biophys. J. 51, 865–873 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    M. R. Eftink and K. Hagaman, Biophys. Chem. 22, 173–180 (1985).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    E. A. Permyakov, A. V. Ostrovsky, E. A. Burstein, P. G. Pleshanov, and C. H. Gerday, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 240, 781–792 (1985).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    J. W. Petrich, J. W. Longworth, and G. R. Fleming, Biochemistry 26, 2711–2722 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    M. R. Eftink and C. A. Ghiron, Biophys. J. 52, 467–473 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    M. A. Abdallah, J. F. Biellman, P. Wiget, R. Joppich-Kuhn, and P. Lusi, Eur. J. Biochem. 89, 397–405 (1978).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    W. R. Laws and J. D. Shore, J. Biol. Chem. 253, 8593–8597 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    M. R. Eftink and L. A. Selvidge, Biochemistry 21, 117–125 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    A. Gafni, Biochemistry 18, 1540–1545 (1979).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    M. R. Eftink and D. M. Jameson, Biochemistry 21, 4443–4449 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    D. B. Calhoun, J. M. Vanderkooi, G. V. Woodrow, and S. W. Englander, Biochemistry 22, 1526–1533 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    G. A. Norris, B. F. Anderson, and E. N. Baker, J. Mol. Biol. 165, 501 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    U. Heinemann and W. Saenger, Nature (London) 299, 27–31 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    R. H. Kretsinger and C. E. Nockolds, J. Biol. Chem. 248, 3313–3326 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    C.-I. Branden, H. Jornvall, H. Eklund, and B. Furugren, in: Enzymes, 3rd ed., (P. D. Boyer, ed.), Vol. II, pp. 103–190, Academic Press, New York (1975).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    S. Georghiou, M. Thompson, and A. K. Mukhopadhyay, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 642, 429–432 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    B. P. Maliwal, A. Cardin, R. Jackson, and J. R. Lakowicz, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 236, 370–378 (1985).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    K. T. O’Neil, H. R. Wolfe, Jr., S. Erickson-Viitanen, and W. F. DeGrado, Science 236, 1454–1456 (1987).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    E. A. Burstein, E. A. Permyakov, V. I. Emelyanenko, T. L. Bushueva, and J. F. Pechere, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 400, 1–16 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Z. Wasylewski and M. R. Eftink, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 915, 331–341 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Z. Wasylewski, Z. Stryjewski, A. Wasniowska, J. Potempa, and K. Baran, Biochim. Biophys.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    A. N. Lane, Eur. J. Biochem. 133, 531–538 (1983). Acta 971, 177–181 (1986).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    A. F. Chaffotte and M. E. Goldberg, Eur. J. Biochem. 139, 47–50 (1984).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    J. Loscalzo and R. I. Hardin, Biochemistry 23, 3880–3886 (1984).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    E. Kurtenbach and S. Verjovski-Almeida, J. Biol. Chem. 260, 9636–9641 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    P. C. Leavis, E. Gowell, and T. Tao, Biochemistry 23, 4156–4161 (1984).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    W. J. Perkins, J. A. Wells, and R. G. Yount, Biochemistry 23, 3994–4002 (1984).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    M. M. Werber, Y. M. Peyser, and A. Muhlrad, Biochemistry 26, 2903–2909 (1987).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    T. Hiratsuka, J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 93, 875–882 (1983).Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    H. Miyata and H. Asai, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 787, 113–121 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    T. Tao and J. Cho, Biochemistry 18, 2759–2765 (1979).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    S. B. Omar and T. Schleich, Biochemistry 20, 6371–6378 (1981).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    K. O. Greulich, R. W. W. van Resandt, and G. G. Kneale, Eur. Biophys. J. 11, 195–201 (1985).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    A. P. Butler, J. K. W. Mardian, and D. E. Olins, J. Biol. Chem. 260, 10613–10620 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    A. V. Philips, D. J. Robbins, M. S. Coleman, and M. D. Barkley, Biochemistry 26, 2893–2903 (1987).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    A. M. Edwards and E. Silva, Radiat. Environ. Biophys. 25, 113–122 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    M. R. Eftink and C. A. Ghiron, Biochemistry 16, 5546–5551 (1977).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    D. B. Calhoun, J. M. Vanderkooi, and S. W. Englander, Biochemistry 22, 1533–1540 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    S. W. Englander and N. R. Kallenbach, Quart. Rev. Biophys. 16, 521–655 (1984).Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    B. Somogyi, J. A. Norman, and A. Rosenberg, Biophys. J. 50, 55–61 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    E. Blatt, A. Husain, and W. H. Sawyer, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 871, 6–13 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    F. M. Richards, Carlsberg Res. Commun. 44, 47–63 (1979).Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    D. A. Case and M. Karplus, J. Mol. Biol. 132, 343–350 (1979).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    E. Gratton, B. Alpert, D. M. Jameson, and G. Weber, Biophys. J. 45, 789–794 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    C. Woodward, I. Simon, and E. Tuchsen, Mol. Cell. Biochem. 48, 135–160 (1982).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    M. R. Eftink, in: Time-Resolved Laser Spectroscopy in Biochemistry (J. R. Lakowicz, ed.), Proc. SPIE 909, 389–393 (1988).Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    R. Lumry and A. Rosenberg, Collog. Int. C.N.R.S. 246, 55–63 (1975).Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    G. Weber and H. G. Drickamer, Quart. Rev. Biophys. 16, 89–112 (1983).Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    R. B. Thompson and J. R. Lakowicz, Biochemistry 23, 3411–3417 (1984).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    M. R. Eftink and K. Hagaman, Biophys. Chem. 23, 277–282 (1986).Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    M. J. Ruwart and C. H. Suelter, J. Biol. Chem. 246, 5990–5993 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    K. Gekko and S. N. Timasheff, Biochemistry 20, 4667–4676 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    D. L. Beece, H. Eisenstein, H. Frauenfelder, D. Good, M. C. Marden, L. Reinisch, A. H. Reynolds, L. B. Sorenson, and K. T. Yue, Biochemistry 19, 5147–5157 (1980).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    M. R. Eftink and C. A. Ghiron, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 916, 343–349 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    S. Narasimhulu, Biochemistry 27, 1147–1153 (1988).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    M. Friedman, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 89, 4709–4713 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    M. Danilveiciute, O. Adomeniene, and G. Dieuys, Organic Reactivity 18, 217–224 (1981).Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    S. S. Lehrer, in: Biochemical Fluorescence: Concepts, Vol. 2 (R. F. Chen and H. Edelhoch, eds.), pp. 515–544, Marcel Dekker, New York (1976).Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    D. M. Jameson, E. Gratton, G. Weber, and B. Alpert, Biophys. J. 45, 795–803 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    M. R. Eftink, J. L. Zajicek, and C. A. Ghiron, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 491, 473–481 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    J. R. Lakowicz, G. Laczko, and I. Gryczynski, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2499–2506 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    S. Timasheff and H. Inoue, Biochemistry 7, 2501–2513 (1968).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    E. James, A. Zlotnick, J. Tennyson, and P. Holloway, J. Biol. Chem. 261, 6725–6729 (1986).Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    W. J. Albery, P. N. Bartlett, C. P. Wilde, and J. R. Darwent, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 1854–1858 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    D. R. James and W. R. Ware, Chem. Phys. Lett. 120, 455–459 (1985).Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    D. R. James, Y.-S. Liu, P. deMayo, and W. R. Ware, Chem. Phys. Lett. 120, 460–465 (1985).Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    J. R. Alcala, E. Gratton, and F. G. Prendergast, Biophys. J. 51, 597–604 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    J. R. Alcala, E. Gratton, and F. G. Prendergast, Biophys. J. 51, 925–936 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    J. M. Beechem and L. Brand, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 54, 43–71 (1985).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    S. A. Cockle and A. G. Szabo, Photochem. Photobiol. 34, 23–27 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    M. Shinitzky and B. Rivnay, Biochemistry 16, 982–986 (1977).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    H. J. Pownall and L. C. Smith, Biochemistry 13, 2594–2597 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    J. R. Lakowicz, D. Hogen, and G. Omann, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 471, 401–411 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    M. V. Encinas and E. A. Lissi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 91, 55–57 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    G. M. Omann and M. Glaser, Biophys. J. 47, 623–627 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    E. Blatt, R. C. Chatelier, and W. H. Sawyer, Biophys. J. 50, 349–356 (1986).Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    E. Blatt and W. H. Sawyer, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 822, 43–62 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    K. R. Thulborn and W. H. Sawyer, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 511, 125–140 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    E. A. Haigh, K. R. Thulborn, and W. H. Sawyer, Biochemistry 18, 3535–3532 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    D. B. Chalpin and A. M. Kleinfeld, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 731, 465–474 (1983).Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    W. W. Mantulin, H. J. Pownall, and D. M. Jameson, Biochemistry 25, 8034–8042 (1986).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    C. S. Owen, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 3204–3207 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    M. F. Blackwell, K. Gounaris, S. J. Zara, and J. Barber, Biophys. J. 51, 735–744 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    R. Fato, M. Battino, M. D. Esposti, G. P. Castelli, and G. Lenaz, Biochemistry 25, 3378–3390 (1986).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    S. S. Atik, C. L. Kwan, and L. A. Singer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101, 5696–5702 (1979).Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    E. London and G. W. Feigenson, Biochemistry 20, 1932–1938, 1939–1948, and 1949–1961 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    K. I. Florine and G. W. Feigenson, Biochemistry 26, 2978–2983 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    R. C. Chatelier, P. J. Rogers, K. P. Ghiggino, and W. H. Sawyer, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 776, 75–82 (1984).Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    T. Markello, A. Zlotnick, E. James, J. Tennyson, and P. W. Holloway, Biochemistry 24, 2895–2901 (1985).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    M. J. S. DeWolf, G. A. F. Van Dessel, A. R. Largrou, H. J. J. Hilderson, and W. S. H. Dierick, Biochemistry 26, 3799–3806 (1987).Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    J. Luisetti, H. Mohwald, and H.-J. Galla, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 552, 519–530 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    V. G. Bieri and D. F. H. Wallach, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 406, 415–423 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    V. G. Bieri and D. F. H. Wallach, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 443, 198–205 1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    J. Everett, A. Zlotnick, J. Tennyson, and P. W. Holloway, J. Biol. Chem. 261, 6725–6729 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    M. Esfahani and T. M. Devlin, J. Biol. Chem. 257, 9919–9921 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    J. C. Gomez-Fernandez, M. D. Baena, J. A. Teruel, J. Villalain, and C. J. Vidal, J. Biol. Chem. 260, 7168–7170 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    R. A. Badley, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 379, 517–528 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    A. Jonas, J.-P. Privat, P. Wahl, and J. C. Osborne, Jr., Biochemistry 24, 6205–6221 (1982).Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    K. A. Muczynski and W. L. Stahl, Biochemistry 22, 6037–6048 (1983).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    I. Kahan, R. M. Epand, and M. A. Moscarello, Biochemistry 25, 562–566 (1986).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    A. M. Batenburg, P. E. Bougis, H. Rochat, A. J. Verkleij, and B. de Kruijff, Biochemistry 24, 7101–7110 (1985).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    P. Cavatorta, A. Spisni, E. Casali, L. Lindner, L. Masotti, and D. W. Urry, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 689, 113–120 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    J. R. Lakowicz and J. R. Knutson, Biochemistry 19, 905–911 (1980).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    S. Cheng and J. K. Thomas, Radiat. Res. 60, 268–279 (1974).Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    B. C. Hill, P. M. Horowitz, and N. C. Robinson, Biochemistry 25, 2287–2292 (1986).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    J. C. Mclntyre, P. Hundley, and W. D. Behnke, Biochem. J. 245, 281–829 (1987).Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    L. R. McLean, K. A. Hagaman, J. L. Krstenansky, T. J. Owen, and D. J. Sprinkle, Biochemistry 28, 8403–8410 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    H. P. H. Moore and M. A. Raftery, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 4509–4513 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    A. P. Winiski, A. C. McLaughlin, R. V. McDaniel, M. Eisenberg, and S. McLaughlin, Biochemistry 25, 8206–8214 (1986).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    K. Beardsley, T. Tao, and C. R. Cantor, Biochemistry 9, 3524–3532 (1970).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    S. J. Atherton and P. C. Beaumont, J. Phys. Chem. 90, 2252–2259 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    F. W. Summerfield and A. L. Tappel, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 740, 185–189 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    B. Q. Ferguson and D. C. H. Yang, Biochemistry 25, 529–539 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    C. Pande and A. Wishnia, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 127 49–55 (1985).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    H. Paulsen and W. Wintermeger, Eur. J. Biochem. 138, 125–130 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    J. B. A. Ross, C. J. Schmidt, and L. Brand, Biochemistry 20, 4369–4377 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    D. R. Demmer, D. R. James, D. P. Steer, and R. E. Verral, Photochem. Photobiol. 45, 39–48 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    P. M. Torgerson, Biochemistry 23, 3002–3007 (1984).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    D. J. Robbins, M. R. Deibel, Jr., and M. D. Barkley, Biochemistry 24, 7250–7257 (1985).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    M. R. Eftink and K. A. Hagaman, Biochemistry 25, 6631–6637 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    G. Weber, Biochem. J. 75, 335–345 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    B. Valeur and G. Weber, Photochem. Photobiol. 25, 441–444 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    C. A. Ghiron and J. W. Longworth, Biochemistry 18, 3828–3832 (1979).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    J. R. Lakowicz, H. Cherek, I. Gryczynski, N. Joshi, and M. L. Johnson, Biophys. J. 51, 755–768 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    A. J. W. G. Visser, T. Ykema, A. van Hoek, D. J. O’Kane, and John Lee, Biochemistry 24, 1489–1496 (1985).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    M. R. Eftink, Biophys. J. 51, 278a (1987).Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    J. R. Lakowicz and B. P. Maliwal, J. Biol. Chem. 258, 4794–4801 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    I. Munro, I. Pecht, and L. Stryer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76, 56–60 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    J. C. Brochon, P. Wahl, and J. C. Auchet, Eur. J. Biochem. 41, 577–583 (1979).Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    S. Georghiou, M. Thompson, and A. K. Mukhopadhyay, Biophys. J. 37, 159–161 (1982).Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    W. A. Volkerl, R. R. Kuntz, C. A. Ghiron, R. F. Evans, R. Santus, and M. Bazin, Photochem. Photobiol. 26, 3–9 (1977).Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    J.-J. Toulme, T. LeDoan, and C. Helene, Biochemistry 23, 195–201 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    P. L.-G. Chong and T. E. Thompson, Biophys. J. 47, 613–621 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    J. M. Vanderkooi and J. B. Callis, Biochemistry 13, 4000–4006 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    B. Somogyi, S. Papp, A. Rosenberg, I. Seres, J. Matko, G. R. Welch, and P. Nagy, Biochemistry 24, 6674–6679 (1985).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    C. H. Messmer and J. H. R. Kagi, Biochemistry 24, 7172–7178 (1985).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    R. F. Chen, Anal. Lett. 17, 1225–1243 (1984).Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    M. L. Johnson and S. G. Frasier, Methods Enzymol. 117, 301–342 (1985).Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    J. R. Knutson, J. M. Beechem, and L. Brand, Chem. Phys. Lett. 102, 501–507 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    J. M. Beechem, J. R. Knutson, J. B. A. Ross, B. W. Turner, and L. Brand, Biochemistry 22, 6054–6058 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    J. M. Beechem, M. Ameloot, and L. Brand, Chem. Phys. Lett. 120, 466–472 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    J. M. Beechem and E. Gratton, in: Time-Resolved Laser Spectroscopy in Biochemistry (J. R. Lakowicz, ed.), Proc. SPIE 909, 70–83 (1988).Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    J. B. A. Ross, W. R. Laws, and H. R. Wyssbrod, in Time-Resolved and Laser Spectroscopy in Biochemistry (J. R. Lakowicz, ed.), Proc. SPIE 909, 82–89 (1988).Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    J. R. Knutson, Biophys. J. 51, 285a (1987).Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    I. Gryczynski, W. Wiczk, M. Johnson, and J. R. Lakowicz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 145, 439–446 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    C. A. Ghiron, M. R. Eftink, M. A. Porter, and F. C. Hartman, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 260, 267–272 (1988).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    A. U. Acuna, F. J. Lopez-Hernander, and J. M. Oton, Biophys. Chem. 16, 153–260 (1982).Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    W. Stryjewski and Z. Wasylewski, Eur. J. Biochem. 159, 547–553 (1986).Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Z. Wasylewski and M. R. Eftink, Biochemistry 29, 382–391 (1989).Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    D. J. Desilets, P. T. Kissinger, and F. E. Lytle, Anal. Chem. 59, 1244–1246 (1987).Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    M. L. Saviotti and W. C. Galley, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71, 4154–4158 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Y. Kai and K. Imakubo, Pholochem. Photobiol. 29, 261–265 (1979).Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    J. M. Vanderkooi, C. D. Calhoun, and S. W. Englander, Science 236, 568–569 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    G. B. Strambini, Biophys. J. 52, 23–28 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    G. B. Strambini, Biophys. J. 43, 127–130 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    C. A. Ghiron, M. Bazin, and R. Santus, J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods (in press).Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    C. A. Ghiron, M. Bazin, and R. Santus, Photochem. Photobiol. 47, 539–543 (1988b).Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    C. A. Ghiron, M. Bazin, and R. Santus, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 957, 207–216 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    D. V. Bent and E. Hayon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 2612–2619 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    K. Kawaoka, A. U. Khan, and D. R. Kearns, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 1842–1853 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    O. L. J. Gijzeman, F. Kaufman, and G. Porter, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2, 69, 708–737 (1973).Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    D. R. Kearns and A. J. Stone, J. Chem. Phys. 55, 3383–3389 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    N. Barboy and J. Feitelson, Biochemistry 26, 3240–3244 (1987).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    F. Castelli, H. D. White, L. S. Forster, Biochemistry 27, 3366–3372 (1988).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    F. Ricchelli, M. Beltramini, L. Flamigni, and B. Salvto, Biochemistry 26, 6933–6939 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    D. G. Searcy, T. Montenany-Garestier, D. J. Laston, and C. Helene, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 953, 321–333 (1988).Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    D. Hansen, L. Altschmied, and W. Hillen, J. Biol. Chem. 262, 14030–14035 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    P. A. Tyson and M. Steinberg, J. Biol. Chem. 262, 4644–4648 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    J. H. Kan, R. W. Wijnaendts van Resandt, and H. P. J. M. Dekkers, J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn. 3, 827–842 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    J. R. Miller, J. V. Beitz, and R. K. Huddleston, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 106, 5057–5068 (1984).Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    J. K. Swadesh, P. W. Mui, and H. A. Scheraga, Biochemistry 26, 5761–5769 (1987).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    J. Saltiel and B. W. Atwater, Adv. Photochem. 14, 1–90 (1988).Google Scholar
  246. 246.
    I. Gryczynski, M. L. Johnson, and J. R. Lakowicz, Biophys. Chem. 31, 269–274 (1988).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    D. Zinger and N. E. Geacintov, Photochem. Photobiol 47, 181–188 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    T. Montenany-Garestier, J. Fidy, J.-C. Brochon, and C. Helene, Biochimie 63, 937–940 (1981).Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski and I. Gryczynski, Photochem. Photobiol. 47, 31–41 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    A. Chattopadhyay and E. London, Biochemistry 26, 39–45 (1987).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maurice R. Eftink
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of MississippiUniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations