Advertisement

Conducting Polymers, Electrochemistry, and Biomimicking Processes

  • Toribio Fernández Otero
Part of the Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry book series (MAOE, volume 33)

Keywords

Conducting Polymer Cathodic Potential Anodic Potential Potential Step Polymeric Segment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    F-R. F. Fan and A. J. Bard, Science 277 (1997) 1791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. F. Diaz, K. K. Kanazawa, and G. P. Gardini, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. (1979) 635.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. F. Diaz, W.-Y. Lee, J. A. Logan, and D. C. Green, J. Electroanal. Chem. 108 (1980) 377; 129 (1981) 115; A. F. Diaz, J. L. Castillo, K. K. Kanazawa, J. A. Logan, M. S. Salomon, and O. Fajardo, 133 (1982) 233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Dall’Olio, Y. Dascola, V. Varacca, and V. Bocchi, Compt. Rend. C267 (1968) 433.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. F. Otero, R. Tejada, and A. S. Elola, Polymer 28 (1987) 651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. F. Diaz, J. Crowley, J. Bargon, G. P. Gardini, and J. B. Torrance, J. Electroanal. Chem. 121 (1981) 355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. Tourillon and F. Garnier, J. Electroanal. Chem. 135 (1982) 173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    T. Yamamoto, K. Sanechia, and A. Yamamoto, J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Lett. Ed. 18 (1980) 9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. F. Otero and E. de Larreta-Azelain, Polym. Commun. 29 (1988) 21.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. Lethby, J. Chem. Soc. 15 (1862) 161.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    T. Mizoguchi and R. N. Adams, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 84 (1962) 2058; Z. Galus and R. N. Adams, 84 (1962) 2061; Z. Galus, R. M. White, F. S. Rowland, and R. N. Adams, 84 (1962) 2065; D. M. Mohilner, R. N. Adams, and W. J. Argersinger, 84 (1962) 3618; Z. Galos and R. N. Adams, J. Phys. Chem. 67 (1963) 862; R. F. Nelson and R. N. Adams, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 90 (1968) 3925; 90 (1968) 659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    W-S. Huang, B. D. Humphrey, and A. G. MacDiardmid, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 82 (1986) 2385.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Kitani, M. Kaya, and K. Sasaki, J. Electrochem. Soc. 133 (1986) 1069.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Angeli and L. Alexandri, Gozz. Chim. Ital. 46 (1916) 1279; 46 (1916) 283.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Salmon, K. K. Kanazawa, A. F. Diaz, and M. Krounbi, J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Lett. Ed. 20 (1982) 187.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Rapi, V. Bocchi, and G. P. Garcini, Synth. Met. 24 (1988) 217.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. H. Kuhn, W. C. Kimbrell, G. Worrel, and C. S. Chen, Tech. Pap-Soc. Plast. Eng. 37 (1991) 760.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. H. Kuhn and W. C. Kinbrell, U.S. Patent 4,981,718 (1991).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. T. Travers, P. Audevert, and G. Bidan, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 118 (1985) 149.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. Hotta, M. Sogoa, and N. Sonoa, Synth. Met. 26 (1988) 267.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    T. F. Otero and J. Rodriguez, J. Electroanal. Chem. 397 (1994) 513.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    D. E. Stiwell and S.-M. Park, J. Electrochem. Soc. 135 (1988) 2254.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Y. B. Shim and S.-M. Park, Synth. Met. 29 (1989) E169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Y. Wei, Y. Sun, and X. Tang, J. Phys. Chem. 93 (1989) 4878.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    H. Yang, D. O. Wipf, and A. J. Bard, J. Electroanal. Chem. 236 (1987) 189.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    E. M. Genies, G. Bidan, and A. F. Diaz, J. Electroanal. Chem. 149 (1983) 101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. Asavapiriyanont, G. K. Chandler, G. A. Gunawardena, and D. Pletcher, J. Electroanal. Chem. 177 (1984) 229; 177 (1984) 245.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. L. Marcos, I. Rodriguez, and J. González-Velasco, Electrochim. Acta 32 (1987) 1435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    B. R. Scharifker, E. García-Pastoriza, and W. Marino, J. Electroanal. Chem. 300 (1987) 85 (1991).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    T. F. Otero and J. Rodríguez, Synth. Met. 55–57 (1993) 1436.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    T. F. Otero J. Rodríguez, E. Angulo, and C. Santamaria, Synth. Met. 41–43 (1991) 2831.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    T. F. Otero and E. Angulo, J. Appl. Electrochem. 22 (1992) 369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    T. F. Otero and J. Rodríguez, Electrochim. Acta 39 (1994) 245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    T. F. Otero and C. Santamaria, Electrochim. Acta 37 (1992) 297.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    F. Beck, M. Oberst, and R. Jansen, Electrochim. Acta 35 (1990) 1841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    T. F. Otero, J. Rodríguez, and E. de Larreta-Azelain, Polymer 31 (1990) 220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    T. F. Otero and C. Santamaria, J. Electroanal. Chem. 312 (1991) 285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    T. F. Otero, J. Rodríguez, E. Angulo, and C. Santamaría, in Proc. V Encuentros Nacionales de Electroquímica, pp. 223–238, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela, 1992.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    T. F. Otero and J. Rodríguez, Synth. Met. 51 (1992) 307.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    T. F. Otero and A. H. Arévalo, J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 5 (1994) 183.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    T. F. Otero and A. H. Arévalo, Synth. Met. 66 (1994) 25.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    T. F. Otero and C. Santamaria, J. Electroanal. Chem. 312 (1991) 285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    T. F. Otero and J. Rodríguez, Synth. Met. 55–57 (1993) 1436.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    T. F. Otero, C. Santamaria, and J. Rodríguez, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 328 (1994) 805.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    T. F. Otero, P. Herrasti, P. Ocón, and C. R. Alves, Electrochim. Acta 43 (1998) 1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    T. F. Otero, J. Rodríguez, E. Angulo, and C. Santamaría, in Proc. V Encuentro Nacionales de Electriquímica, pp. 239–254, Venezuela, 1992.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    T. F. Otero and C. Santamaría, Synth. Met. 51 (1992) 313.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    S. Dong and J. Ding, Synth. Met. 20 (1987) 119.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    W. Wernet and G. Wegner, Makromol. Chem. 188 (1987) 1465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    R. Qian, J. Qiu, and D. Shen, Synth. Met. 18 (1987) 13.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    T. F. Otero and V. Olazábal, Portug. Electrochim. Acta 13 (1995) 403.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    T. F. Otero and J. Rodríguez, J. Electroanal. Chem. 310 (1991) 219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    M. Ogasawa, K. Funahashi, T. Demurta, T. Hagiwara, and K. Iwata, Synth. Met. 14 (1986) 61.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    T. F. Otero, C. Santamaría, and R. Bunting, J. Electroanal. Chem. 380 (1995) 291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    T. F. Otero and E. de Larreta-Azelain, An. Quím. 85 (1989) 22.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    T. F. Otero, C. Santamaría, E. Angulo, and J. Rodríguez, Synth. Met. 41–43 (1991) 2947.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    T. F. Otero, E. Angulo, C. Santamaría, and J. Rodríguez, Synth. Met. 54 (1993) 217.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    T. F. Otero, C. Santamaría, E. Angulo, and J. Rodríguez, Synth. Met. 55–57 (1993) 1574.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    T. F. Otero and J. Rodríguez, J. Electroanal. Chem. 310 (1991) 219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    H. Naarmann, in Science and Applications on Conducting Polymers, W. R. Salaneck, ed., Adam Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1991 p. 81–92.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    H. Naarmann, in Intrinsically Conducting Polymers: An Emerging Technology, M. Aldissi, ed., Kluwer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1993, p. 1–12.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    T. F. Otero, R. Tejada, and E. de Larreta-Azelain, Makromol. Chem. Makromol. Symp. 20/21 (1988) 615.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    T. F. Otero and E. de Larreta-Azelain, Synth. Met. 26 (1988) 79.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    T. F. Otero and E. de Larreta-Azelain, J. Chim. Phys. 86 (1989) 131.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    T. F. Otero, J. Rodríguez, and E. de Larreta-Azelain, Polymer 31 (1990) 220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    T. Otero and E. de Larreta-Azelain, Spanish patent 87/03162 (1987).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    T. F. Otero, in Trends in Polymer Science, Vol. 3, pp. 81–93, Council of Sci. Res. Integration, Madras, 1993.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    T. F. Otero and C. Santamaría, Electrochim. Acta 37 (1992) 297.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    T. F. Otero, in Proc. V Encuentro Nacionales de Electroquímica, pp. 23–28, Universidad de Merida, Venezuela, 1992.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    T. F. Otero and J. Rodríguez, in Intrinsically Conducting Polymers: An Emerging Technology, M. Aldissi, ed., pp. 179–190, Kluwer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1993.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    T. F. Otero and J. Rodríguez, Electrochim. Acta. 39 (1994) 245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    J. C. Thieblemont, J. L. Galvelle, and M. F. Planche, Synth. Met. 66 (1994) 243.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    M. F. Planche, J. C. Thieblemont, N. Mazars, and G. Bidan, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 52 (1994) 1867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    X. B. Chen, J. Devaux, J.-P. Issi, and D. Billaud, Eur. Polym. J. 30 (1994) 809.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    W. A. Gazotti, Jr., V. F. Juliano, and M. A. De Paoli, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 42 (1992) 317.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    S. A. Abdou and S. Holdcroft, in Handbook of Organic Conductive Molecules and Polymers, A. S. Nalwa, ed., Vol. 2, Chapter 20 (1997) pp. 833–858, Wiley, Chichester, U.K.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    J. P. Ferraris and D. J. Guerrero, in Handbook of Conducting Polymers, T. A. Skotheim, R. L. Elsebaumer, and J. R. Reynolds, eds., Chapter 10, p. 259, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1998.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    J. Carrasco, A. Figueras, T. F. Otero, and E. Brillas, Synth. Met. 61 (1993) 253.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    T. F. Otero, J. Carrasco, F. Figueras, and E. Brillas, J. Electroanal. Chem. 370 (1994) 171.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    T. F. Otero, E. Brillas, J. Carrasco, and A. Figueras, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 328 (1994) 805.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    E. Brillas, J. Carrasco, A. Figueras, F. Urpi, and T. F. Otero, J. Electroanal. Chem. 392 (1995) 55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    T. F. Otero and M. Vazquez, J. Electroanal. Chem. 397 (1995) 171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    T. F. Otero and V. Olazábal, Electrochim. Acta 41 (1996) 213.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    T. F. Otero and J. M. Sansiñena, J. Electroanal. Chem. 412 (1996) 109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    T. F. Otero and M. J. González-Tejera, J. Electroanal. Chem. 410 (1996) 69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    T. F. Otero and M. J. González-Tejera, J. Electroanal. Chem. 429 (1996) 19.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    T. F. Otero and E. Pereira (unpublished results).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    T. F. Otero and V. Polo (unpublished results).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    T. F. Otero and O. Roig (unpublished results).Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    R. Saunders, K. S. Murray, R. J. Fleming, R. Cervini, and N. S. Allen, in Handbook of Organic Conductive Molecules and Polymers, A. S. Nalwa, ed., Wiley, Chichester, U.K. (1997) Vol. 3, Chapter 12, pp. 634–676.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    P. Gómez-Romero and M. Lira Cantu, Adv. Mat. 9 (1997) 144.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    M. Clemente-León, E. Coronado, J. R. Galán, C. Giménez-Saiz, C. J. Gómez-García, and T. F. Otero, J. Mat. Chem. 8 (1998) 309.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    T. A. Skotheim, R. L. Elsenbaumer, and J. R. Reynolds, eds., Handbook of Conducting Polymers, 2nd ed., Marcel Dekker, New York, 1998 and 1st ed., 1986.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    H. S. Nalwa, ed., Handbook of Organic Conductive Molecules and Polymers, Wiley, Chichester, U.K., 1997.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    T. Shimidzu, A. Ohtani, T. Iyda, and K. Honda, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Comm. 327 (1988).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    T. F. Otero, H. Grande, and J. Rodríguez, Synth. Met, 83 (1996) 205.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    D. Naegele and R. Bittin, Solid State Ionics 28 (1988) 983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    M. Sato, M. Tanaka, and K. Kaeriyama, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Comm. (1987) 1725.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    M. Maxfield, T. R. Jow, S. Gould, M. G. Sewchok, and L. W. Shackelete, J. Electrochem. Soc. 135 (1988) 299.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    T. F. Otero, in Polymer Sensors and Actuators, Y. Osada and D. De Rossi, eds., Springer-Verlag, (in press).Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    A. J. Epstein in Handbook of Conducting Polymers, T. A. Skotheim, ed., 1st ed., Chapter 29, pp. 1041–1097, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    T. F. Otero and E. Angulo, Synth. Met. 51 (1992) 87.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    T. F. Otero and J. M. Sansiñena, Bioelectrochem. Bioenergetics 47 (1997) 117.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    T. F. Otero and J. M. Sansiñena, Bioelectrochem. Bioenergetics 38 (1995) 411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    T. F. Otero el al. patent EP-9200095 and EP-9202628, 1992.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    T. F. Otero, E. Angulo, J. Rodríguez, and C. Santamaría, J. Electroanal. Chem. 341 (1992) 369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    T. F. Otero, J. Rodríguez, E. Angulo, and C. Santamaría, Synth. Met. 57 (1993) 3713.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    T. F. Otero, J. Rodríguez, and C. Santamaría, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. 330 (1994) 333.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    T. F. Otero, in New Organic Materials, C. Seoane and M. Martín, eds., Univ. Complutense, Madrid, 1994, p. 205–237.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    T. F. Otero, J. M. Sansiñena, H. Grande, and J. Rodriguez, Portugalae Electrochim. Acta 13 (1995) 499.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    T. F. Otero and J. Rodriguez, Portugalae Electrochim. Acta 13 (1995) 409.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    T. F. Otero, H. Grande, and J. Rodriguez, J. Phys. Org. Chem. 9 (1996) 381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    L. Stryyer, Bioquímica, Ed Reverté, Barcelona (1988).Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    J. M. Sansiñena, V. Olazábal, T. F. Otero, C. N. Polo da Fonseca, and M. De Paoli, Chem. Commun., 2217 (1997).Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Q. Pei and O. Inganäs, J. Phys. Chem. 96 (1992) 10507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Q. Pei and O. Inganäs, J. Phys. Chem. 97 (1993) 6034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Q. Pei and O. Inganäs, Synth. Met. 55–57 (1993) 3718.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Q. Pei and O. Inganäs, Synth. Met. 55–57 (1993) 3730.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Q. Pei, O. Inganäs, and I. Lundstrom, Smart Mater. Struct. 2 (1993) 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    K. Kaneto, M. Kaneko, Y. Min, and A. G. MacDiarmid, Synth. Met. 71 (1995) 2211.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    W. Takashima, M. Fukui, M. Kaneko, and K. Kaneto, J. Appl. Phys. 34 (1995) 3786.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    W. Takashima, M. Kaneko, K. Kaneto, and A. G. MacDiarmid, Synth. Met. 71 (1995) 2265.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    S. Morita, S. Shakuda, T. Kawai, and K. Yoshino, Synth. Met. 71 (1995) 2231.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    X. Chen and O. Inganäs, Synth. Met. 74 (1995) 159.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Q. Pei and O. Inganäs, Synth. Met. 55–57 (1993) 3724.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    W. Kuhn, B. Hargitay. A. Katchalsky, and H. Eisenberg, Nature 165 (1950) 514.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    P. J. Flory, Principles of Polymer Chemistry, Chapter 13, Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY, 1953.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    M. Ilavsky, Polymer 22 (1981) 1687.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Y. Osada, Adv. Polym. Sci. 82 (1987) 1.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    F. Horkay and M. Zrinyi, Makromol. Chem. Macromol. Symp. 30 (1989) 133.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    D. De Rossi, M. Suzuki, Y. Osada, and P. Moraso, Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 3 (1992) 75.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    T. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40 (1978) 820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Y. Hirokawa and T. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys. 81 (1984) 6379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    S. Fujishige, K. Kubota, and I. Ando, J. Phys. Chem. 93 (1988) 3311.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    T. Tanaka, D. Fillmore, S. T. Sun, I. Nishio, G. Swislow, and A. Shah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45 (1990) 1636.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    S. Katayama, Y. Hirokawa, and T. Tanaka, Macromolecules 17 (1984) 2641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    E. S. Matsuo and T. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys. 89 (1988) 1695.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Y. Li and T. Tanaka, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 22 (1992) 243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    T. Tanaka, I. Nishio, S. T. Sun, and S. Ueno-Nishio, Science 218 (1982) 467.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Y. Osada and M. Hasebe, Chem. Lett. 9 (1985) 1285.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    T. Karauchi, T. Shiga, Y. Hirose, and A. Okada, in Polymer Gels, D. De Rossi, K. Kajiwara, Y. Osada, and A. Yamauchi, eds., p. 237, Plenum Press, New York, 1991.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    T. Shiga and T. Kurauchi, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 39 (1990) 2305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    M. Suzuki, in Proc. 12th Ann. Int. Conf. IEEE EMBS, Vol. 12, p. 1913, 1990.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    D. E. De Rossi, P. Chiarelli, G. Buzzigoli, C. Domenici, and L. Lazzeri, Trans. Am. Soc. Artif. Intern. Organs 32 (1986) 157.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    P. Chiarelli, K. Umezawa, and D. De Rossi, in Polymer Gels, D. De Rossi, K. Kajiwara, Y. Osada, and A. Yamauchi, eds., p. 195, Plenum Press, New York, 1991.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Y. Osada and J. Gong, Prog. Polym. Sci. 18 (1993) 187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    P. E. Grimshaw, J. H. Nussbaum, A. J. Grodzinsky, and M. L. Yarmush, J. Chem. Phys. 93 (1990) 4462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    P. Chiarelli and D. De Rossi, J. Intell. Mat. 3 (1992) 396.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Y. Osada, Adv. Mater. 3 (1991) 107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    M. Suzuki and O. Hirasa, in Polymer Gels, D. De Rossi, K. Kajiwara, Y. Osada, and A. Yamauchi, eds., Plenum Press, New York, 1991.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Y. Osada, J. P. Gong, and K. Sawahata, J. Makromol. Sci. Chem. A 28 (1991) 1189.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Y. Osada, H. Okuzaki, and H. Hori, Nature 355 (1992) 242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    R. H. Baughman, Makromol. Chem., Macromol. Symp. 51 (1991) 193.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    G. Smets, J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed. 13 (1975) 2223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    R. Lovrien. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 57 (1967) 236.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    M. Irie, and D. Kunwatchakun, Macromol. Chem., Rapid Commun. 5 (1985) 829.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    D. W. Urry, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Eng. 32 (1993) 819.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    A. Hugot-Le-Goff, in Handbook of Organic Conductive Molecules and Polymers, A. S. Nalwa, ed., Vol. 3, Chapter 14, pp. 745–784, Wiley, Chichester, U.K., 1997.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    C. Arbizani, M. Mastragostino, and B. Scrosati, in Intrinsically Conductive Molecules and Polymers, A. S. Nalwa, ed., Vol. 4, Chapter 11, pp. 595–620, Wiley, Chichester, U.K., 1997.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    T. F. Otero and E. Angulo, Synth. Met. 55–57 (1993) 1430.Google Scholar
  161. 16I.
    T. F. Otero and M. Bengoechea, Electrochim. Acta 41 (1996) 1871; Langmuir (in press).Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    R. J. Mortimer, Chem. Soc. Rev. 26 (1997) 147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    S. A. Agnihotry and S. Chandra, Ind. J. Eng. Mat. Sci. 1 (1994) 320.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    P. Novak, K. Müller, K. S. V. Santhannam, and O. Haas, Chem. Rev. 97 (1997) 207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    P. G. Bruce, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Comm. 1817 (1997).Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    J. R. Owen, Chem. Soc. Rev. 26 (1997) 259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    M. I. Sánchez De Pinto, H. T. Mishima, and B. A. López de Mishima, J. Appl. Electrochem. 27 (1997) 831.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    D. Fauteux and R. Koksbang, J. Appl. Electrochem. 23 (1993) 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    J. Rodríguez, Doctoral thesis. Universidad del País Vasco, San Sebastián, Spain, 1992.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    C. Santamaría, Doctoral thesis. Universidad del País Vasco, San Sebastián, Spain, 1993.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    C. Barbero, M. C. Miras, O. Haas, and R. Kötz, J. Electroanal. Chem. 310 (1991) 437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    T. Matencio and E. Vieil, Synth. Met. 44 (1991) 349.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    J. P. Travers, F. Genoud, C. Menardo, and M. Nechstein, Synth. Met. 35 (1990) 159.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    P. Bourgmayer and R. W. Murray, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104 (1982) 6139.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    C. Ehrenbeck and K. Jüttner, Electrochim. Acta 41 (1996) 1815.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    E. G. Lyons, ed., Electroactive Polymers Electrochemistry. Part 1. Fundamentals, 1994; Part 2. Methods and Applications, 1996, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    T. F. Otero, H.-J. Grande, and J. Rodríguez, J. Phys. Chem. 101 (1997) 3688.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    T. F. Otero, H.-J. Grade, and J. Rodríguez, J. Electroanal. Chem. 394 (1995) 211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    T. F. Otero, H.-J. Grande, and J. Rodríguez, J. Brasilian Chem. Soc. 5 (1994) 179.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    G. Inzelt, Electrochim. Acta 34 (1989) 83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    T. F. Otero and E. Angulo, Solid State Ionics 63–65 (1993) 803.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    C. Odin and M. Nechtschein, Synth. Met. 55–57 (1993) 1287.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    J. Heinze, R. Bilger, and K. Meerholtz, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 92 (1988) 1266.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    P. Marque and J. Roncali, J. Phys. Chem. 94 (1990) 8614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    T. Yeu, K.-M. Yin, J. Carbajal, and R. E. White, J. Electrochem. Soc. 138 (1991) 2869.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    M. Slama and J. Tanguy, Synth. Met. 28 (1989) C171.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    G. C. Arridge, Mechanics of Polymers, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1975.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    T. F. Otero, H.-J. Grande, and J. Rodriguez, Electrochim. Acta 41 (1996) 1863.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    H.-J. Grande, Doctoral thesis. Universidad del País Vasco, San Sebastián, Spain, 1998.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    H.-J. Grande, T. F. Otero, and I. Cantero, J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 235–237 (1998) 619.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    T. F. Otero and H.-J. Grande, Colloid Surface A 134 (1998) 85.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    T. F. Otero, H.-J. Grande, and J. Rodríguez, J. Phys. Chem. 101 (1997) 8525.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    T. F. Otero, H. Grande, and J. Rodríguez, Synth. Met. 83 (1996) 205.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    T. F. Otero, H. Grande, and J. Rodríguez, Synth. Met. 85 (1997) 1077.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    T. F. Otero and H. Grande, J. Electroanal. Chem. 414 (1996) 171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    T. F. Otero, S. Villanueva, M. Bengoechea, E. Brillas, and J. Carrasco, Synth. Met. 84 (1997) 183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    H.-J. Grande and T. F. Otero (unpublished results).Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    B. Lucas, B. Ratier, A. Moliton, J. P. Moliton, T. F. Otero, C. Santamaría, E. Angulo, and J. Rodríguez, Synth. Met. 55–57 (1993) 1459.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    B. Lucas, J. Rodríguez, T. F. Otero, B. Guille, and A. Moliton, Adv. Mat. Opt. Electron. 5 (1995) 277.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    J. Rodríguez, J. P. Moliton, T. Trigaud, T. F. Otero, and H. Grande, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 413 (1996) 595.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toribio Fernández Otero
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Electrochemistry, Faculty of ChemistryUniversity of the Basque CountrySan SebastiánSpain

Personalised recommendations