Advertisement

Anti-Adipocyte Monoclonal Antibodies: A New Technology for Regulating Adipose Conversion

  • Remacle C. 
  • Clercq L. De 
  • Mourot J. 
  • Boone C. 
Part of the Focus on Biotechnology book series (FOBI, volume 5)

Abstract

During the last decades, livestock breeders attempted to develop strategies for decreasing fat content in meat. One of these strategies consists in immunization against adipocytes. Polyclonal antisera have been raised against fat cells or adipocyte plasma membranes of different species, and in vivo reduction of fat depots has been observed in some cases. Facing the problems of specificity and reproducibility inherent to polyclonal antisera, monoclonal antibodies could offer a promising alternative, which has been developed only in the porcine species.

In our laboratory, a mouse monoclonal antibody of the IgG2b sub-class was raised against porcine adipocyte plasma membranes. This antibody did not cross-react in immunocytofluorescence with any tested cell-type or tissue other than adipocytes. Complement-mediated cytotoxicity was demonstrated in primary cultures of porcine stromal-vascular cells. When antibody and complement were added to already differentiated cultures, the treatment resulted in elimination of lipid-filled preadipocytes, whereas an early treatment of cultures prevented the appearance of these cells. Newborn piglets were injected at a time when most fat tissues are developing, except the intramuscular one maturation of which occurs later. The dose of 1 mg/kg of monoclonal antibody on d 2 and 5of life produced more than a 20% reduction of subcutaneous and leaf fat lipids at 35d of age, whereas the lipid content of muscle remained unaffected. In animals sacrificed at 50 and 100 kg, the early treatment with antibody led to a decrease of subcutaneous and visceral fat without affecting the growth performance of the animals. These results demonstrate that early systemic treatment of piglets with a specific anti-adipocyte antibody is able to reduce the fat mass, while keeping less affected the intramuscular fat depot.

Keywords

Adipose Tissue Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Polyclonal Antiserum Longissimus Muscle Adipose Conversion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Butherwith, S.C., Kestin, S.C., Griffin, H.D. and Flint, D.J. (1989) Cytotoxic antibodies to chicken adipocytes and their precursors: lack oftissue specificity, Br. PouIt. Sci. 30, 371–378.Google Scholar
  2. Buttenvith, S.C., Kestin, S.C., Griffin, H.D., Beattie, J. and Flint, D.J. (1992) Identification of chicken (Gallus domesticus) adipocyte plasma membrane and differentiation specific proteins using SDS-PAGE and western blotting, Comp Biochem. Biophys. 110B, 147–151.Google Scholar
  3. Chakrabarty, K. and Romans, J.R. (1972) Lipogenesis in the adipose cells of the bovine as related to their intramuscular fat content, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 41B, 603–607.Google Scholar
  4. Cryer, A,, Gray, B.R. and Woodhead, J.S. (1984) Study on the characterisation of bovine adipocyte precursor cells and their differentiation in vitro, using an indirect-labelled-second antibody cellular immunoassay, J. Dev. Physiol. 6, 159–176.Google Scholar
  5. De clercq, L., Mourot, J., Genart, C., Davidts, V., Boone, C. and Remacle, C. (1997) An anti-adipocyte monoclonal antibody is cytotoxic to porcine preadipocytes in vitro and depresses the development of pig adipose tissue, J. Anim. Sci. 75, 1791–1797.Google Scholar
  6. Dong, J., Froman, D.P. and Hu, C.Y. (1991) Development and characterization of polyclonal antibodies againstchicken adipocytes, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 99A, 195–198.Google Scholar
  7. Dulor, J., Reyne, Y. and Nougues, J. (1990) In vivo effects of a treatment with antibodies to adipocyte plasma membranes in the rabbit, Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 30, 49–58.Google Scholar
  8. Flint, D.J. (1998) Effects of antibodies to adipocytes on body weight, food intake, and adipose tissue cellularity in obese rats, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 252, 263–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Flint, D.J., Coggrave, H., Futter, C.E., Gardner, M.J. and Clarke, T.J. (1986) Stimulatory and cytotoxic effects of an anti-serum to adipocyte plasma membranes on adipose tissue metabolism in vitro and in vivo, Int. J. Obesity 10, 69–77.Google Scholar
  10. Hauser, N., Mourot, J., De clercq, L., Genart, C. and Remacle, C. (1997) The cellularity of developing adipose tissues in Pietrain and Meishan pigs, Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 37, 617–625Google Scholar
  11. Hausman, G.J. and Richardson, R.L. (1998) Newly recruited and pre-existing preadipocytes in cultures of porcine stromal-vascular cells: morphology, expression of extracellular matrix components, and lipid accretion, J. Anim. Sci. 76, 48–60.Google Scholar
  12. Hausman, G.J., Wright, J.T., Dean, R. and Richardson, R.L. (1993) Cellular and molecular aspects of the regulation of adipogenesis, J. Anim. Sci. 71 (Suppl. 2), 33–55.Google Scholar
  13. Hu, C.Y., Suryawan, A,, Killefer, J. and Wehr, N.B. (1992) Effect of antiserum to rat adipocytes on growth and body composition of the rat, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 101A, 669–673.Google Scholar
  14. Kestin, S., Kennedy, R., Tonner, E., Kiernan, M., Cryer, A,, Griffin, H., Buttenvith, S., Rhind, S. and Flint, D. (1993) Decreased fat content and increased lean in pigs treated with antibodies to adipocyte plasma membranes, J. Anim. Sci. 71, 1486–1494.Google Scholar
  15. Killefer, J. and Hu, C.Y. (1990a) Expression of a 64 kD adipocyte-specific plasma membrane protein in genetically lean but not obese porcine adipocytes, J. Cell. Biochem. 44, 167–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Killefer, J. and Hu, C.Y. (1990b) Production of a novel monoclonal antibody to porcine adipocyte plasma membrane, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 194, 172–176.Google Scholar
  17. Lebret, B. and Mourot, J. (1998). Caractéristiques et qualité des tissus adipeux chez le porc. Facteurs de variation non genetiques, INRA Prod. Anim. 11, 131–143.Google Scholar
  18. Lin, G., Cross, C. and Smith, M.H. (1992) Esterification of fatty acids by bovine intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues, Lipids 27, 111–116.Google Scholar
  19. Moloney, A.P. and Allen, P. (1989) Growth and weights of abdominal and carcass fat in sheep immunized against adipose cell membranes, Proc Nutr Soc. 48, 14A.Google Scholar
  20. Moody, W.G., Enser, M.B., Wood, J.D., Restall, D.J. and Lister, D. (1978) Comparison of fat and muscle development in Pietrain and Large White piglets, J Anim. Sci. 46, 618–633.Google Scholar
  21. Nassar, A.H. and Hu, C.Y. (1991) Growth and carcass characteristics of lambs passively immunized with antibodies developed against ovine adipocyte plasma membrane, J. Anim. Sci., 69, 578–586.Google Scholar
  22. Nassar, A.H. and Hu, C.Y. (1992) Characterization of polyclonal antibodies against ovine adipocyte plasma membranes, Int. J Biochem. 24, 599–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Panton, D., Futter, C., Kestin, S. and Flint, D. (1990) Increased growth and protein deposition in rats treated with antibodies to adipocytes, Amer. J. Physiol. 258, E985–E989.Google Scholar
  24. Wright, J.T. and Hausman, G.J. (1990) Monoclonal antibodies against cell surface antigens expressed during porcine adipocyte differentiation, Int. J Obesity 14, 395–409.Google Scholar
  25. Wright, J.T. and Hausman, G.J. (1995) Monoclonal antibody-mediated cytotoxicity of adipocytes, Obesity Res. 3, 265–272.Google Scholar
  26. Yu, Z.K., Wright, J.T. and Hausman, G.J. (1997) Preadipocyte recruitment in stromal vascular cultures after depletion of committed preadipocytes by immunocytotoxicity, Obesity Res. 5, 9–15.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Remacle C. 
    • 1
  • Clercq L. De 
    • 1
  • Mourot J. 
    • 2
  • Boone C. 
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Cell BiologyUniversité catholique de LouvainLouvain-la-NeuveBelgium
  2. 2.INRASaint-GillesFrance

Personalised recommendations