From the Breath of Life to Reactive Oxygen Species

  • Daniel L. Gilbert


Reactive Oxygen Species Free Radical Electron Spin Resonance Barometric Pressure Acute Mountain Sickness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ado, A. D., 1933, Über den Verlauf der oxydativen und glykolytischen Prozesse in den Leukocyten des entzundeten Gewebes wahred der Phagocytose, Z. Gesamte Exp. Med. 87:473–480.Google Scholar
  2. Attic Miscellany, 1791, 7887 Doctor Phlogiston, the Priestley Politician or the Political Priest, in Catalogue of Political and Personal Satires Preserved in the Department of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum. Vol. VI. 1784–1792, printed 1947 (M. D. George, ed.), p. 806, Department of Prints and Drawings, British Museum, London.Google Scholar
  3. Babior, B. M., Kipnes, R. S., and Curnutte, J. T., 1973, Biological defense mechanisms. The production by leukocytes of superoxide, a potential bactericidal agent, J. Clin. Invest. 52:741–744.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldridge, C. W., and Gerard, R. W., 1933, The extra respiration of phagocytosis, Am. J. Physiol. 103:235–236.Google Scholar
  5. Barr, N. F., 1972, Titus C. Evans. Managing Editor 1954–1972, Radial. Res. 50:iii.Google Scholar
  6. Barron, E. S. G., Dickman, S., Muntz, J. A., and Singer, T. P., 1949, Studies on the mechanism of action of ionizing radiations. I. Inhibition of enzymes by x-rays. J. Gen. Physiol. 32:537–552.Google Scholar
  7. Bean, J. W., 1945, Effects of oxygen at increased pressure, Physiol. Rev. 25:1–147.Google Scholar
  8. Bert, P., 1878, Barometric Pressure. Researches in Experimental Physiology (M. A. Hitchcock and F. A. Hitchcock, Trans.), College Book Co., Columbus, Ohio, 1943.Google Scholar
  9. Bonavia, D., Leon-Velarde, F., Monge, C. C., Sanchez-Grinan, M. I., and Whittembury, J., 1984, Tras las huellas de Acosta 300 anos despues. Consideraciones sobre su descripcion del “Mal de altura,” Historica 8(l):1–31.Google Scholar
  10. Bonavia, D., Leon-Velarde, F., Monge, C. C., Sanchez-Grinan, M. I., and Whittembury, J., 1985, Acute mountain sickness: Critical appraisal of the Pariacaca story and on-site study, Respir. Physiol. 62:125–134.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Campbell, J. A., 1938, Effects of oxygen pressure as influenced by external temperature, hormones and drugs, J. Physiol. (London) 92:29P–30P.Google Scholar
  12. Clark, J. M., and Lambertsen, C. J., 1971, Pulmonary oxygen toxicity: A review, Pharmacol. Rev. 23:37–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cohen, G., 1977, In defense of Haber-Weiss, in Superoxide and Superoxide Dismutases (A. M. Michelson, J. M. McCord, and I. Fridovich, eds.), pp. 317–321, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Colton, C. A., and Gilbert, D. L., 1987, Production of superoxide anions by CNS macrophage, the microglia, FEBS Lett. 223:284–288.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Commoner, B., Townsend, J., and Pake, G. E., 1954, Free radicals in biological materials, Nature 174:689–691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Commoner, B., Heise, J. J., Lippincott, B. B., Norberg, R. E., Passonneau, J. V., and Townsend, J., 1957, Biological activity of free radicals, Science 126:57–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Conant, J. B., 1957, Case 2. The overthrow of the phlogiston theory. The chemical revolution of 1775–1789, in Harvard Case Histories in Experimental Science, Volume 1 (J. B. Conant and L. K. Nash, eds.), pp. 67–115, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  18. Dale, W. M., 1954, Basic radiation chemistry, in Radiation Biology. Volume I: High Energy Radiation (A. Hollaender, ed.), pp. 255–281, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Evans, T. C., 1972, Editorial. Fifty volumes of Radiation Research, Radiat. Res. 50:v–xvi.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Farmer, E. H., Koch, H. P., and Sutton, D. A., 1943, The course of autoxidation reactions in polyisoprenes and allied compounds. Part VII. Rearrangement of double bonds during autoxidation, J. Chem. Soc. 1943:541–547.Google Scholar
  21. Fenton, H. J. H., 1894, Oxidation of tartaric acid in presence of iron, J. Chem. Soc. 65:899–910.Google Scholar
  22. Florkin, M., 1975, A History of Biochemistry. Part III. History of the Identification of the Sources of Free Energy in Organisms, in Comprehensive Biochemistry, Volume 31 (M. Florkin and E. H. Stotz, eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  23. Flory, P. J., 1937, The mechanism of vinyl polymerizations, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 59:241–253.Google Scholar
  24. Frängsmyr, T., 1986, Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742–1786), Chem. Scr. 26:507–511.Google Scholar
  25. Frank, L., Bucher, J. R., and Roberts, R. J., 1978, Oxygen toxicity in neonatal and adult animals of various species, J. Appl. Physiol. 45:699–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Frank, R. G. J., 1980, Harvey and the Oxford Physiologists. Scientific Ideas and Social Interaction, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  27. Fridovich, I., 1975, Oxygen: Boon and bane, Am. Sci. 63:54–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Fridovich, I., 1981, Superoxide radical and superoxide dismutases, in Oxygen and Living Processes: An Interdisciplinary Approach (D. L. Gilbert, ed.), pp. 250–272, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  29. Fulton, J. F., 1943, Foreword, in Barometric Pressure. Researches in Experimental Physiology, pp. v–ix, College Book Co., Columbus, Ohio.Google Scholar
  30. Funahashi, T., Floyd, R. A., and Carney, J. M., 1994, Age effect on brain pH during ischemia/reperfusion and pH influence on peroxidation, Neurobiol. Aging 15:161–167.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gandevia, B., 1970a, The breath of life: An essay on the earliest history of respiration. Part I, Austr. J. Physiother. 16:5–11.Google Scholar
  32. Gandevia, B., 1970b, The breath of life: An essay on the earliest history of respiration. Part II, Austr. J. Physiother. 16:57–69.Google Scholar
  33. Geison, G.L.,1974, Louis Pasteur, in Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Volume X (C. C. Gillespie, ed.), pp. 350–416, Scribner’s, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Geison, G. L.,1995, The Private Science of Louis Pasteur, Princeton, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  35. Gerschman, R., 1959, Oxygen effects in biological systems, Symp. Spec. Lect., XXI Int. Congr. Physiol. Soc., pp. 222–226.Google Scholar
  36. Gerschman, R., 1981, Historical introduction to the “free radical theory” of oxygen toxicity, in Oxygen and Living Processes: An Interdisciplinary Approach (D. L. Gilbert, ed.), pp. 44–46, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  37. Gerschman, R., and Fenn, W. O., 1954, Ascorbic acid content of the adrenal in oxygen poisoning, Am. J. Physiol. 171:726.Google Scholar
  38. Gerschman, R., and Fenn, W. O., 1954, Ascorbic acid content of the adrenal in oxygen poisoning, Am. J. Physiol. 176:6–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gerschman, R., Gilbert, D. L., Nye, S.W., Dwyer, P., and Fenn, W. O., 1954, Oxygen poisoning and x-irradiation: A mechanism in common, Science 119:623–626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gibbs, F. W.,1965, Joseph Priestley. Adventurer in Science and Champion of Truth, Thomas Nelson and Sons, Camden, NJ.Google Scholar
  41. Gilbert, D. L., 1955, The permeability of isolated frog skeletal muscle to calcium, Ph.D. thesis, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY.Google Scholar
  42. Gilbert, D. L., 1960, Speculation on the relationship between organic and atmospheric evolution, Perspect. Biol. Med. 4:58–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gilbert, D. L., 1963, The role of pro-oxidants and antioxidants in oxygen toxicity, Radiat. Res. Suppl. 3:44–53.Google Scholar
  44. Gilbert, D. L., 1981, Perspective on the history of oxygen and life, in Oxygen and Living Processes: An Interdisciplinary Approach (D. L. Gilbert, ed.), pp. 1–43, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  45. Gilbert, D. L., 1983a, The first documented report of mountain sickness: The China or Headache Mountain story, Respir. Physiol. 52:315–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Gilbert, D. L., 1983b, The first documented description of mountain sickness: The Andean or Pariacaca story, Respir. Physiol. 52:327–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gilbert, D. L., 1991, The Pariacaca or Tullujuto story: Political realism? Respir. Physiol. 86:147–157.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gilbert, D. L., 1994, Keeping reactive oxygen species (ROS) in their proper place, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 738:1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gilbert, D. L., 1996a, Evolutionary aspects of atmospheric oxygen and organisms, in Handbook of Physiology, Section 4. Adaptation to the Environment. Volume II (M. J. Fregly and C. M. Blatteis, eds.), pp. 1059–1094, Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
  50. Gilbert, D. L., 1996b, The eradication of the phlogiston theory by book burning, FASEB J. 10:A31 (Abstract 177).Google Scholar
  51. Gilbert, D. L., 1996c, Rebeca Gerschman: A personal remembrance, Free Radical Res. Biol. 21:1–4.Google Scholar
  52. Gilbert, D. L., and Fenn, W. O., 1957, Calcium equilibrium in muscle, J. Gen. Physiol. 40:393–408.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gilbert, D. L., Janney, C. D., and Mines, H. M., 1950, Circulatory transfer of P32 to skeletal muscles under various experimental conditions, Am. J. Physiol. 163:575–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Gillray, G., 1791, 7894 A Birmingham Toast, as Given on The 14th Of July, by the — Revolution Society, in Catalogue of Political and Personal Satires Preserved in the Department of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum. Vol. VI. 1784–1792, printed 1947 (M. D. George, ed.), p. 82, Department of Prints and Drawings, British Museum, London.Google Scholar
  55. Giulian, D., and Baker, T. J., 1986, Characterization of ameboid microglia isolated from developing mammalian brain, J. Neurosci. 6:2163–2178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Gomberg, M., 1900, An instance of trivalent carbon: Triphenylmethyl, J Am. Chem. Soc. 22:757–771.Google Scholar
  57. Gomberg, M., 1914, The existence of free radicals, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 36:1144–1170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gomberg, M., 1924, Organic radicals, Chem. Rev. 1:91–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Guerlac, H., 1961, Lavoisier—The Crucial Year. The Background and Origin of His First Experiments on Combustion in 1772, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  60. Guerlac, H., 1975, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier. Chemist and Revolutionary, Scribner’s, New York.Google Scholar
  61. Haber, F, and Weiss, J., 1934, The catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by iron salts, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 147:332–351.Google Scholar
  62. Hales, S., 1727, Vegetable Staticks: Or, An Account of Some Statical Experiments on the Sap in Vegetables: Being an Essay Towards a Natural History of Vegetation. Also, a Specimen of an Attempt to Analyse the Air, By a Great Variety of Chymio-Statical Experiments; Which Were Read at Several Meetings Before the Royal Society. London: W. and J. Innys, T. Woodward.Google Scholar
  63. Hales, S., 1733, Statical Essays: Containing Haemastaticks; or an Account of Some Hydraulick and Hydrostatical Experiments Made on the Blood and Blood-Vessels of Animals. Also an Account of Some Experiments on Stones in the Kidneys and Bladder; With an Enquiry Into the Nature of Those Anomalous Concretions. To Which is Added, an Appendix, Containing Observations and Experiments Relating to Several Subjects in the First Volume. The Greatest Part of Which Were Read at Several Meetings Before the Royal Society. With an Index to Both Volumes. Vol. II. London: W. Innys and R. Manby, T. Woodward.Google Scholar
  64. Hales, S., 1735, La Statique des Vegetaux, et L’Analyse de L’Air. Experiences Nouvelles Lûes α la Societé Royales de Londres (d. Buffon, Trans.), Chez DEBURE I’aîne, α l’entrée du Qauay des Augustins, du côté du Pont Saint Michel, à Saint Paul, Paris.Google Scholar
  65. Halliwell, B., and Gutteridge, J. M. C., 1989, Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
  66. Harman, D., 1957, Prolongation of the normal life span by radiation protection chemicals, J. Gerontol. 12:257–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Harman, D., 1992, Free radical theory of aging: History, in Free Radicals and Aging (I. Emerit and B. Chance, eds.), pp. 1–10, Birkhauser Verlag, Basel.Google Scholar
  68. Haugaard, N., 1946, Oxygen poisoning XI. The relation between inactivation of enzymes by oxygen and essential sulfhydryl groups, J. Biol. Chem. 164:265–270.Google Scholar
  69. Hayashi, T., Ueno, Y., and Okamoto, T., 1993, Oxidoreductive regulation of nuclear factor κ Involvement of a cellular reducing catalyst thioredoxin, J. Biol. Chem. 268:11380–11388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Holmes, F. L., 1985, Lavoisier and the Chemistry of Life. An Exploration of Scientific Creativity, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  71. Holmes, F. L., 1994, Antoine Lavoisier. The conservation of matter, Chem. Eng. News 72 (Sept. 12, No. 37):38–45.Google Scholar
  72. Ihde, A. J., 1967, The history of free radicals and Moses Gomberg’s contributions, Pure Appl. Chem. 15:1–13.Google Scholar
  73. Iyer, G. Y. N., Islain, M. F, and Quastel, J. H., 1961, Biochemical aspects of phagocytosis, Nature 192:535–541.Google Scholar
  74. Janaky, R., Varga, V, Saranssri, P., and Oja, S. S., 1993, Glutathione modulates the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-activated calcium influx into cultured rat cerebellar granule cells, Neurosci. Lett. 156:153–157.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kellogg, R. H., 1978, La Pression Barométrique: Paul Bert’s hypoxia theory and its critics, Respir. Physiol. 34:3–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Klebanoff, S. J., 1967, A peroxidase-medicated anti-microbial system in leukocytes, J. Clin. Invest. 46:1078.Google Scholar
  77. Lavoisier, 1782–1783, Sur lesaltérations qui arrivent à I’air dansplusieurscirconstances oú se trouvent les hommes réunis en société, Hist. Soc. Méd. 5 (Read in 1785):569–582; Mémoires de Médecine, 5 (Read in 1785).Google Scholar
  78. Lavoisier, 1783, Réflexions sur le phlogistique, pour servir de suite [développement] à la théorie de la Combustion et [&] de la Calcination, Publiée en 1777, in: Le Ministre de l’ Instruction Publique. Oeuvres de Lavoisier. Vol. II. Mémoires de Chimie et Physique. Imprimerie Impériale, Paris, 1862, pp. 623–655. (Histoire de l’Académie Royale des Sciences avec Les Mémoires de Mathématique & de Physique, pp. 505–538).Google Scholar
  79. Lavoisier, A. L., 1789, Elements of Chemistry, in a New Systematic Order, Containing All the Modem Discoveries (D. McKie, ed.; R. Kerr, Trans.), Dover, New York, 1965.Google Scholar
  80. Mahaffy, P. G., 1995, Breathing life into chemists. Resuscitating chemistry with insights from 19th century textbooks, J. Chem. Educat. 72:767–773.Google Scholar
  81. Mattill, H. A., 1947, Antioxidants, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 16:177–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McCord, J. M., and Fridovich, I., 1969, Superoxide dismutase. An enzymic function for erythrocuprein (hemocuprein), J. Biol. Chem. 244:6049–6055.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. McCord, J. M., and Fridovich, I., 1977, Superoxide dismutases: A history, in Superoxide and Superoxide Dismutases (A. M. Michelson, J. M. McCord, and I. Fridovich, eds.), pp. 1–10, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  84. Mellor, J. W., 1927, Part 10. The physical properties of chlorine, bromine, and iodine, in The Halogens: A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, Volume II, pp. 46–70, Longmans, Green, London.Google Scholar
  85. Michaelis, L., 1946, Fundamentals of oxidation and respiration, Am. Sci. 34:573–596.Google Scholar
  86. Moureu, C., and Dufraisse, C., 1926, Catalysis and auto-oxidation. Anti-oxygenic and pro-oxygenic activity, Chem. Rev. 3:113–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ozorio de Almeida, A., 1934, Recherches sur l’action toxique des haules pressions ďoxygène, C.R. Soc. Biol. 116:1225–1227.Google Scholar
  88. Partington, J. R., 1962, A History of Chemistry, Volume 3, St. Martin’s Press, New York.Google Scholar
  89. Pasteur, L., 1861, Animalcules infusoires vivant sans gas oxygéne libre et déterminant des fermentations, C.R. Acad. Sci. 52:344–347.Google Scholar
  90. Pasteur, L., 1863, Recherches sur la putréfaction, C.R. Acad. Sci. 56:1189–1194.Google Scholar
  91. Pocidalo, J., Braun-Pascaud, M., Blayo, M., and Azoulay-Dupuis, E., 1983, Respiratory effects of normobaric oxygen toxicity in awake guinea-pig, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 74B:831–836.Google Scholar
  92. Poirier, J., 1993, Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier. 1743–1794, Paris: Pygmalion, Gérard Watelet.Google Scholar
  93. Priestley, J., 1775, Experiments and observations on different kinds of air, Volume II, Sections III–V, in Foundations of Anesthesiology, Volume 1 (A. Faulconer and T. C. Keys, eds.), pp. 39–70, Thomas, Springfield, IL.Google Scholar
  94. Pryor, W. A., 1966, Free Radicals, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  95. Pryor, W. A., 1968, Organic free radicals, Chem. Eng. News 46(Jan. 15):70–89.Google Scholar
  96. Rahn. H., 1979, Wallace Osgood Fenn. August 27, 1893–September 20, 1971 in Biographical Memoirs, Volume 50 (National Academy of Sciences, ed.), pp. 140–173, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  97. Roberts, R. M.,1989, Serendipity. Accidental Discoveries in Science, p. 30, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  98. Sanderson, R. T.,1967, Inorganic Chemistry, Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  99. Schreck, R., and Baeuerle, P. A., 1991, A role for oxygen radicals as second messengers, Trends Cell Biol. 1:39–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Seguin and Lavoisier, 1789 (read Nov. 17, 1791, published 1791), Premier mémoire sur la respiration des animaux [Also in Mémoires sur la Respiration et la Transpiration des Animaux, Paris, 1920, Gauthier-Villars, pp. 31–51, 185]. Mem. Acad. Sci. (in Hist. Acad. Sci. [A. Lavoisier, ed.], pp. 566–584).Google Scholar
  101. Smith, J. L., 1899, The pathological effects due to increase of oxygen tension in the air breathed, J. Physiol. (London) 24:19–35.Google Scholar
  102. Sosenko, I. R. S., and Frank, L., 1987, Guinea pig lung development: Antioxidant enzymes and premature survival in high O2, Am. J. Physiol. 252:R693–R698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Spinks, J. W. T., and Woods, R. J.,1990, An Introduction to Radiation Chemistry, 3rd ed., Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  104. Stadie, W. C, Riggs, B. C, and Haugaard, N., 1944, Oxygen poisoning, Am. J. Med. Sci. 207:84–114.Google Scholar
  105. von Sonntag, C., 1987, The Chemical Basis of Radiation Biology, Taylor & Francis, London.Google Scholar
  106. Walling, C., 1957, Free Radicals in Solution, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  107. Warburg, O.,1908, Beobachtungen über die Oxydationsprozesse im Seeigelei, Z.Physiol.Chem. 57:1–16.Google Scholar
  108. Weiss, J., 1944, Radiochemistry of aqueous solutions. Nature 153:748–750.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel L. Gilbert
    • 1
  1. 1.Unit on Reactive Oxygen Species, BNP, NINDSNational Institutes of HealthBethesda

Personalised recommendations