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  • © 2023

Biomedical Visualisation

Volume 13 – The Art, Philosophy and Science of Observation and Imaging

  • Highlights the benefits of innovative, art-based teaching and learning approaches in the biosciences

  • Presents emerging imaging techniques for teaching, research and clinical practice

  • Discusses the application of visualisation technologies for improving surgical procedures

Part of the book series: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (AEMB, volume 1392)

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Hardcover Book USD 199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
This title has not yet been released. You will be able to pre-order it soon.

About this book

This book brings together current advances in high-technology visualisation and the age-old but science-adapted practice of drawing for improved observation in medical education and surgical planning and practice.  

We begin this book with a chapter reviewing the history of confusion around visualisation, observation and theory, outlining the implications for medical imaging. The authors consider the shifting influence of various schools of philosophy, and the changing agency of technology over time. We then follow with chapters on the practical application of visualisation and observation, including emerging imaging techniques in anatomy for teaching, research and clinical practice - innovation in the mapping of orthopaedic fractures for optimal orthopaedic surgical guidance - placental morphology and morphometry as a prerequisite for future pathological investigations - visualising the dural venous sinuses using volume tracing.  

Two chapters explore the use and benefit of drawing in medical education and surgical planning. It is worth noting that experienced surgeons and artists employ a common set of techniques as part of their work which involves both close observation and the development of fine motor skills and sensitive tool use.

An in-depth look at police identikit construction from memory by eyewitnesses to crimes, outlines how an individual’s memory of a suspect’s facial features are rendered visible as a composite image.

This book offers anatomy educators and clinicians an overview of the history and philosophy of medical observation and imaging, as well as an overview of contemporary imaging technologies for anatomy education and clinical practice. In addition, we offer anatomy educators and clinicians a detailed overview of drawing practices for the improvement of anatomical observation and surgical planning. Forensic psychologists and law enforcement personnel will not only benefit from a chapter dedicated to the construction of facial composites, but also from chapters on drawing and observation.  


  • Anatomy Education
  • Biomedical Visualisation
  • Data and Information Visualization
  • Drawing
  • Education
  • Human Anatomy
  • Imaging
  • Observation
  • Pedagogy
  • Surgery Training
  • Spatial Anatomy
  • Visual Communication
  • Visualization
  • 3D Anatomy Models
  • 3D Ultrastructure

Editors and Affiliations

  • Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

    Leonard Shapiro

  • School of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

    Paul M. Rea

About the editors

Leonard Shapiro has a keen interest in Anatomy Education and has developed a number of art-derived exercises to address and improve students’ three-dimensional (3D) spatial awareness and observation ability. His courses and online workshops are in collaboration with lecturers who are actively engaged in improving education methodology in anatomy. These are offered to medical students and lecturers in South Africa and abroad. Leonard has developed a multi-sensory observation method that crucially employs the sense of touch (haptics) coupled with the simultaneous act of drawing. It is called the Haptico-visual observation and drawing (HVOD) method.

In anatomy education, the benefits of observing using the HVOD method includes the enhanced observation of the 3D form of anatomical parts, the cognitive memorization of anatomical parts as a 3D 'mental picture', improved spatial orientation within the volume of anatomical parts and an ability to draw. Leonard contributes to the anatomy education discourse by presenting at anatomy conferences as well as via publications and articles. Leonard graduated in BSocSc and in BA Fine Art (Hons) from the University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Paul M. Rea - Paul is Professor of Digital and Anatomical Education at the University of Glasgow. He is Director of Innovation, Engagement and Enterprise within the School of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing. He is also a Senate Assessor for Student Conduct, Council Member on Senate and coordinates the day-to-day running of the Body Donor Program and is a Licensed Teacher of Anatomy, licensed by the Scottish Parliament.

He is qualified with a medical degree (MBChB), a MSc (by research) in craniofacial anatomy/surgery, a PhD in neuroscience, the Diploma in Forensic Medical Science (DipFMS), and an MEd with Merit (Learning and Teaching in Higher Education). He is a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, professional member of the Institute of Medical Illustrators (MIMI) and a registered medical illustrator with the Academy for Healthcare Science.

Paul has published widely and presented at many national and international meetings, including invited talks. He has been the lead Editor for Biomedical Visualisation over 11 published volumes and is the founding editor for this book series. This has resulted in almost 70,000 downloads across these volumes, with contributions from over 300 different authors, across approximately 100 institutions from 16 countries across the globe. He sits on the Executive Editorial Committee for the Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine, is Associate Editor for the European Journal of Anatomy and has reviewed for 25 different journals/publishers.

He is the Public Engagement and Outreach lead for anatomy coordinating collaborative projects with the Glasgow Science Centre, NHS and Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow. Paul is also a STEM ambassador and has visited numerous schools to undertake outreach work. 

His research involves a long-standing strategic partnership with the School of Simulation and Visualisation The Glasgow School of Art. This has led to multi-million pound investment in creating world leading 3D digital datasets to be used in undergraduate and postgraduate teaching to enhance learning and assessment. This successful collaboration resulted in the creation of the worlds first taught MSc Medical Visualisation and Human Anatomy combining anatomy and digital technologies. The Institute of Medical Illustrators also accredits it. It has created college-wide, industry, multi-institutional and NHS research linked projects for students. Paul is the Programme Director for this degree.


Bibliographic Information

Buying options

Hardcover Book USD 199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
This title has not yet been released. You will be able to pre-order it soon.