Firebrand Waves of Digital Activism 1994–2014

The Rise and Spread of Hacktivism and Cyberconflict

  • Athina Karatzogianni

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-vii
  2. Athina Karatzogianni
    Pages 5-24
  3. Athina Karatzogianni
    Pages 121-141
  4. Back Matter
    Pages 142-172

About this book


This book introduces four waves of upsurge in digital activism and cyberconflict. The rise of digital activism started in 1994, was transformed by the events of 9/11, culminated in 2011 with the Arab Spring uprisings, and entered a transformative phase of control and mainstreaming since 2013 with the Snowden affair.


Digital activism hackers cyber conflict digital media social movements cyber attacks Digital Media media Nation politics

Authors and affiliations

  • Athina Karatzogianni
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LeicesterUK

Bibliographic information