The Holocaust and European Societies

Social Processes and Social Dynamics

  • Frank Bajohr
  • Andrea Löw

Part of the The Holocaust and its Contexts book series (HOLC)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-ix
  2. Introduction

  3. Jews in the German Reich After 1933

  4. Case Studies from Eastern, South- Eastern and Central Europe

  5. Jewish Leadership and Jewish Councils

  6. Relations Between Jews and Non-Jews at a Local/Regional Level

  7. The Aftermath. Post-War Returnees

  8. Back Matter
    Pages 337-348

About this book


This book explores the Holocaust as a social process. Although the mass murder of European Jews was essentially the result of political-ideological decisions made by the Nazi state leadership, the events of the Holocaust were also part of a social dynamic. All European societies experienced developments that led to the social exclusion, persecution and murder of the continent’s Jews. This volume therefore questions Raul Hilberg´s category of the ‘bystander’. In societies where the political order expects citizens to endorse the exclusion of particular groups in the population, there cannot be any completely uninvolved bystanders. Instead, this book examines the multifarious forms of social action and behaviour connected with the Holocaust. It focuses on institutions and persons, helpers, co-perpetrators, facilitators and spectators, beneficiaries and profiteers, as well as Jewish victims and Jewish organisations trying to cope with the dynamics of exclusion and persecution. 


Final solution Antisemitism Shoah Third Reich 'Bystander' dynamics Europe history Holocaust society World War II

Editors and affiliations

  • Frank Bajohr
    • 1
  • Andrea Löw
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Contemporary HistoryMunichGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Contemporary HistoryMunichGermany

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016
  • Publisher Name Palgrave Macmillan, London
  • eBook Packages History
  • Print ISBN 978-1-137-56983-7
  • Online ISBN 978-1-137-56984-4
  • Buy this book on publisher's site