# The Kernel Method of Test Equating

• Alina A. von Davier
• Paul W. Holland
• Dorothy T. Thayer
Book

1. Front Matter
Pages i-xxii
2. ### Introduction and Notation

1. Pages 1-16
3. ### The Kernel Method of Test Equating: Theory

1. Front Matter
Pages 17-17
2. Pages 19-44
3. Pages 55-66
4. Pages 67-85
4. ### The Kernel Method of Test Equating: Applications

1. Front Matter
Pages 97-97
2. Pages 99-112
3. Pages 113-130
4. Pages 131-154
5. Pages 155-177
6. Pages 179-196
5. Back Matter
Pages 197-229

### Introduction

Kernel Equating (KE) is a powerful, modern and unified approach to test equating. It is based on a flexible family of equipercentile-like equating functions and contains the linear equating function as a special case. Any equipercentile equating method has five steps or parts. They are: 1) pre-smoothing; 2) estimation of the score-probabilities on the target population; 3) continuization; 4) computing and diagnosing the equating function; 5) computing the standard error of equating and related accuracy measures. KE brings these steps together in an organized whole rather than treating them as disparate problems.

KE exploits pre-smoothing by fitting log-linear models to score data, and incorporates it into step 5) above. KE provides new tools for diagnosing a given equating function, and for comparing two or more equating functions in order to choose between them. In this book, KE is applied to the four major equating designs and to both Chain Equating and Post-Stratification Equating for the Non-Equivalent groups with Anchor Test Design.

This book will be an important reference for several groups: (a) Statisticians and others interested in the theory behind equating methods and the use of model-based statistical methods for data smoothing in applied work; (b) Practitioners who need to equate tests—including those with these responsibilities in testing companies, state testing agencies and school districts; and (c) Instructors in psychometric and measurement programs. The authors assume some familiarity with linear and equipercentile test equating, and with matrix algebra.

Alina von Davier is an Associate Research Scientist in the Center for Statistical Theory and Practice, at Educational Testing Service. She has been a research collaborator at the Universities of Trier, Magdeburg, and Kiel, an assistant professor at the Politechnical University of Bucharest and a research scientist at the Institute for Psychology in Bucharest.

Paul Holland holds the Frederic M. Lord Chair in Measurement and Statistics at Educational Testing Service. He held faculty positions in the Graduate School of Education, University of California, Berkeley and the Harvard Department of Statistics. He is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association, the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is an elected Member of the International Statistical Institute and a past president of the Psychometric society. He was awarded the (AERA/ACT) E. F. Lindquist Award, in 2000, and was designated a National Associate of the National Academies of Science in 2002.

Dorothy Thayer currently is a consultant in the Center of Statistical Theory and Practice, at Educational Testing Service. Her research interests include computational and statistical methodology, empirical Bayes techniques, missing data procedures and exploratory data analysis techniques.

### Keywords

Excel Fitting NEAT design Nation Passing data analysis gaussian kernel smoothing kernel equating long-linear models mathematical statistics statistics test equating and linking

#### Authors and affiliations

• Alina A. von Davier
• 1
• Paul W. Holland
• 1
• Dorothy T. Thayer
• 1
1. 1.Educational Testing ServicePrincetonUSA

### Bibliographic information

• DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/b97446
• Copyright Information Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2004
• Publisher Name Springer, New York, NY
• eBook Packages
• Print ISBN 978-0-387-01985-7
• Online ISBN 978-0-387-21719-2
• Buy this book on publisher's site