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Contributors ix Chapter Introduction: The Challenge of Flowering Plant History David Winship Taylor and Leo J. Hickey Chapter 2. A Survey of Reticulate Venation Among Fossil and Living Land Plants Mary Louise Trivett and Kathleen B. Pigg Chapter 3. A New Gnetophyte from the Late Carnian (Late Triassic) of Texas and its Bearing on the Origin of the Angiosperm Carpel and Stamen 32 Bruce Cornet Chapter 4. Wood Anatomy of Primitive Angiosperms: New Perspectives and Syntheses 68 Sherwin Carlquist Chapter 5. Evidence for the Earliest Stage of ~giosperm Pollen Evolution: A Paleoequatodal Section from Israel 91 Gilbert J. Brenner Chapter 6. The Origin and Evolution of the Angiosperm Carpel 116 David Winship Taylor and Gretchen Kirchner Chapter Floral Structure, Development, and Relationships of Paleoherbs: Saruma, Cabomba, Lactoris, and Selected Piperales 141 Shirley Tucker and Andrew Douglas Chapter 8. Origin of the Angiosperm Flower 176 Leo J. Hickey and David Winship Taylor Chapter Evidence for and Implications of an Herbaceous Origin for Angiosperms 232 David Winship Taylor and Leo Z Hickey Chapter Comparison of Alternative Hypotheses for the Origin of the Angiosperms 267 Henry Loconte 10. 9. W. C. 7. 1. CONTENTS vi Contents Chapter The Least Specialized Angiosperms 286 Robert F. Thorne Chapter Molecular Phylogenies and the Diversification of the Angiosperms 314 Kenneth J. Sytsma and David A. Baum 341 References Appendix. Stratigraphic Time Scale 387 Index 12. 11.
Flora Piperales Polle botanical research development evolution phylogeny plant synthesis the origin wood wood anatomy