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  • Book
  • Open Access
  • © 2021

Female Employment and Gender Gaps in China

  • This book is open access, which means that you have free and unlimited access.

  • Investigates the mechanism of women’ labor supply and determinants of gender gap in Chinese labor market and household during the economic transition period

  • Evaluates the impacts of policy transformation on women’ employment in China

  • Provides academic evidence based on econometric analyses by using many kinds of long-term Chinese national household survey data

Part of the book series: Hitotsubashi University IER Economic Research Series (HUIERS, volume 47)

Buying options

Hardcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Table of contents (8 chapters)

  1. Front Matter

    Pages i-xxi
  2. Introduction

    • Xinxin Ma
    Pages 1-9Open Access
  3. Women’s Family Responsibilities and Employment in China

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 11-11
    2. Parent Care and Middle-Aged Women’s Employment

      • Xinxin Ma
      Pages 41-61Open Access
  4. The Gender Gap in China’s Labor Market and Society

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 63-63
    2. Ownership Sector and the Gender Wage Gap

      • Xinxin Ma
      Pages 65-89Open Access
    3. Gender Gap of Communist Party of China Membership

      • Xinxin Ma
      Pages 91-119Open Access
    4. Gender Gap in Volunteer Activity Participation

      • Xinxin Ma
      Pages 121-143Open Access
  5. Impact of Policy on Women’s Labour Market Outcomes in China

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 145-145
  6. Back Matter

    Pages 177-180

About this book

This open access book investigates female employment and the gender gap in the labor market and households during China’s economic transition period. It provides the reader with academic evidence for understanding the mechanism of female labor force participation, the determinants of the gender gap in the labor market, and the impact of policy transformation on women’s wages and employment in China from an economics perspective. The main content of this book includes three parts―women’s family responsibilities and women’s labor supply (child care, parent care, and women’s employment), the gender gap in the labor market and society (gender gaps in wages, Communist Party membership, and participation in social activity), and the impacts of policy transformation on women’s wages and employment (the social security system and the educational expansion policy on women’s wages and employment) in China. This book provides academic evidence about these issues based on economics theories and econometric analysis methods using many kinds of long-term Chinese national survey data. This book is highly recommended to readers who are interested in up-to-date and in-depth empirical studies of the gender gap and women’s employment in China during the economic transition period. This book is of interest to various groups such as readers who are interested in the Chinese economy, policymakers, and scholars with econometric analysis backgrounds.


  • Women’ employment in China
  • Economic transition in China
  • Chinese labor market
  • Child care in China
  • Parent care in China
  • Gender wage gap
  • Gender gap of Communist Party membership
  • Public pension in China
  • open access

Authors and Affiliations

  • Faculty of Economics, Hosei University, Tokyo, Japan

    Xinxin Ma

About the author

Dr. Ma is a professor at Faculty of Economics,Hosei University. She was a council member of the Japanese Association for Chinese Economy and Management Studies (JACEMS) and was the editor of the Japanese Journal of Comparative Economics, Asian Studies, and the Journal of Chinese Economics. Her current research project focuses on economic transition and labor market segmentation in China, the gender gap of intrahousehold bargaining power and well-being, social security reform, and income inequality in China. Her articles have appeared in peer-reviewed journals such as China Economic Review, Journal of Chinese Economics and Business Studies, Post-Communist Economies, Journal of Economics and Business, Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, and the Journal of Happiness Studies. Her recent book is Economic Transition and Labor Market Reform in China (Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan 2018).

Bibliographic Information

Buying options

Hardcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)