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Economic Dependence of Mongolia on Minerals

Consequences and Policies

  • Book
  • © 2022


  • Is unique on minerals and the economic development of Mongolia
  • Explains ways to promote mineral resource development for stable economic development in Mongolia
  • Conducts polyphenic analysis for Evidence-Based Policy Making in Mongolia

Part of the book series: Contributions to Economics (CE)

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About this book

This book is a compass for resource rich-developing countries, taking Mongolia as a case study. Policy aspects of the development of the mining sector in developing countries such as Mongolia and its impact on the economy and society are reviewed. The book deals with specific industry policies and challenges identified by policy makers, its characteristics and policy recommendations moving forward with an emphasis on the importance of evidence-based policy making (EBPM). It begins with the country’s development strategy and the role of the mining industry, highlighting the fact that major strategic and policy documents still suffer from ambiguity and clear guidance as well as gaps in policy directions. The book also highlights the need for policy makers to improve transparency initiatives. Authors emphasize transparency or lack thereof in mining contracts, taxation, trading, and marketing and provide specific policy recommendations and alternative policy actions. The macroeconomic and social impact of the mining sector and the role of foreign direct investment is also discussed. Particularly, utilizing in-house economic analytical tools, the role and impact of resource revenue management policy in Mongolia is evaluated. Further, the impact of mining projects on the livelihood of local households as well as the importance of obtaining a social license to operate is discussed.

This monograph is recommended for readers who want an in-depth comprehensive understanding of the mining sector, EBPM, and key lessons learned in managing natural resources in Mongolia.

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Table of contents (6 chapters)

Editors and Affiliations

  • Japan International Cooperation Agency, Tokyo, Japan

    Yoshitaka Hosoi

  • Economic Research Institute, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Tuvshintugs Batdelger

  • Department of Economics, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Khashchuluun Chuluundorj

About the editors

Dr. Yoshitaka HOSOI

Dr. Yoshitaka HOSOI has qualifications both in mining and in economics. He is currently a visiting professor/lecturer at Akita University, Hokkaido University, and Kyushu University, all of which are in Japan. He teaches courses in international relations, resources economics, and international cooperation. He has taught at the University of Tokyo, Osaka University, and others as well. He is also senior advisor for natural resources of the Japan International Corporation Agency (JICA), which is a Japanese government organization for Official Development Assistance (ODA). His task is to advise JICA and developing countries in the mining field, formulate projects, supervise implementing projects, and conduct human resource development in Africa, Asia, the Pacific, and South America. Before joining JICA, he worked for the Deep Ocean Resources Development Co., Ltd. (DORD), which holds a manganese nodules concession in the Central Pacific, as general manager of the Exploration Department for planning and executing exploration. Before DORD, he worked for the Japan Oil, Gas, and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC), which is a Japanese governmental organization, for 33 years. He has experience in mineral exploration, mine development, technology development, mine pollution surveys and prevention, and mineral economics in almost 100 countries. He has been a visiting lecturer at the University of the South Pacific in Fiji, and Adamson University in the Philippines. He has held positions in the SODIMIZA mining company in Zaire, Metal Mining Agency of Japan (MMAJ), Japan Mining Engineering Centre for International Cooperation (JMEC), and SOPAC South Pacific Applied Geosciences Commission (SOPAC) in Fiji. He has also published numerous papers and articles in areas of exploration, the mining industry, and economics. He has published the books Mining and Development (2009), Mineral Resources Frontier (2012), and Mining in Africa (2014). He holds a Bachelor of Mining Engineering degree from Akita University, has done postgraduate research in mining at the University of Tokyo, a master’s in economics from the University of Santo Tomas in the Philippines, and a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Queensland in Australia. 


Tuvshintugs Batdelger is the director of the Economic Research Institute (ERI) and an associate professor of economics at the National University of Mongolia. He has a bachelor’s degree in economics from the National University of Mongolia; a master’s degree in economics from the University of Manchester, UK; and a Ph.D. in economics from Boston University, USA. He has experience working at the Bank of Mongolia and was the head of the Economics Department of the National University of Mongolia from 2014 to 2017. He has been a member of the Economic Policy Council under the prime minister of Mongolia since 2012 and was a member ofthe Monetary Policy Committee from 2011 to 2016. He has been actively involved in policy discussions in the country through the establishment and operation of ERI since 2010, one of the longest-running think tanks in the country. Through ERI, he successfully contributed to policy discussions on wide-ranging economic and social issues by coordinating and implementing many projects by international organizations, such as the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, and JICA. In particular, he successfully led research teams conducting an economic assessment of big mining and industrial projects on the country’s economy and society in general. He has successfully conducted and published policy research studies in international peer-reviewed journals and publications such as Applied Economics, Resources Policy, and East Asia Forum and has authored chapters on the Mongolian economy in numerous books. His current research interests are the role of mining in the economy and society, the role of monetary policy in regulating the Mongolian economy, and the impact of economic development on income distribution and the country’s middle class. 

Dr. KHASHCHULUUN Chuluundorj

Khashchuluun Chuluundorj is an associate professor of economics at the National University of Mongolia. He has a bachelor’s degree in economics from Moscow State University, Russia; a master’s degree in economics from Yokohama City University, Japan; and a Ph.D. in economics from Keio University, Japan. He worked with the JICA project on national economic development policy in 1997–1999 and then served as the dean of the Economics School of the National University of Mongolia from 2004 to 2009. From 2009 to 2012, he served as the chairman of the National Development and Innovation Committee of Mongolia (NDIC), a government agency, where he oversaw the establishment of the national economic planning system in the market economy, introduced the public investment program (PIP), and supervised the establishment of the Development Bank of Mongolia, for which he served as an inaugural chairman of the Board of Directors. In addition, he supervised the creation of a legal system to support innovation in the country and oversaw the development of national public–private partnerships. Currently, he is a member of the Economic Policy Council under the prime minister of Mongolia as well as a member of the Monetary Policy Committee of the Central Bank of Mongolia. Ch. Khashchuluun is also working as an independent member on the boards of directors for numerous financial and mining companies in Mongolia and is a visiting professor at the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, in addition to his teaching at the National University of Mongolia’s Department of Economics. He has published in international peer-reviewed journals and publications such as Resources Policy, the Journal of Applied Economic Sciences, Inner Asia, and others.

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