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  • Conference proceedings
  • Open Access
  • © 2022

Proceedings of the 2021 DigitalFUTURES

The 3rd International Conference on Computational Design and Robotic Fabrication (CDRF 2021)


  • Refers to the invention and application of machine intelligence in architecture

  • Includes the most recent research results from the key scholars in the computational design and robotic fabrication

  • Offers an in-depth examination of intelligence in design and construction industry

  • Is an open access book

Conference proceedings info: CDRF 2021.

Buying options

Softcover Book USD 49.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Table of contents (35 papers)

  1. Front Matter

    Pages i-xiv
  2. Computation and Formation

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 1-1
    2. Serlio and Artificial Intelligence: Problematizing the Image-to-Object Workflow

      • Jean Jaminet, Gabriel Esquivel, Shane Bugni
      Pages 3-12Open Access
    3. A Generative Approach to Social Ecologies in Project [Symbios]City

      • Hao Wen, Pengcheng Gu, Yuchao Zhang, Shuai Zou, Patrik Schumacher
      Pages 13-25Open Access
    4. Exploration on Machine Learning Layout Generation of Chinese Private Garden in Southern Yangtze

      • Yubo Liu, Chenrong Fang, Zhe Yang, Xuexin Wang, Zhuohong Zhou, Qiaoming Deng et al.
      Pages 35-44Open Access
    5. Command2Vec: Feature Learning of 3D Modeling Behavior Sequence—A Case Study on “Spiral-stair”

      • Wen Gao, Xuanming Zhang, Weixin Huang, Shaohang Shi
      Pages 45-54Open Access
    6. Punch Card Patterns Designed with GAN

      • Virginia Ellyn Melnyk
      Pages 69-79Open Access
    7. Bio-Tile: An Intelligent Hybrid-Infrastructure

      • Sara Pezeshk
      Pages 80-91Open Access
    8. Bio-Design Intelligence

      • Ana Zimbarg
      Pages 92-101Open Access
  3. Simulation, Prediction and Optimization

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 115-115
    2. Custom-Fit and Lightweight Optimization Design of Exoskeletons Using Parametric Conformal Lattice

      • Fuyuan Liu, Min Chen, Lizhe Wang, Xiang Wang, Cheng-Hung Lo
      Pages 129-138Open Access
    3. Environmentally Driven Aggregate Façade Systems

      • Pablo Cabrera Jauregui
      Pages 158-167Open Access
    4. Optimization of Daylight and Thermal Performance of Building Façade: A Case Study of Office Buildings in Nanjing

      • Hainan Yan, Yiting Zhang, Sheng Liu, Ka Ming Cheung, Guohua Ji
      Pages 168-178Open Access

Other Volumes

  1. Proceedings of the 2021 DigitalFUTURES

About this book

This open access book is a compilation of selected papers from 2021 DigitalFUTURES—The 3rd International Conference on Computational Design and Robotic Fabrication (CDRF 2021). The work focuses on novel techniques for computational design and robotic fabrication. The contents make valuable contributions to academic researchers, designers, and engineers in the industry. As well, readers encounter new ideas about understanding material intelligence in architecture.


  • History, Theory and Critics of Building Technology
  • Performance-based Design
  • Fabrication and Construction
  • Data Mining and Visualizing
  • Immersive and Interactive Environment
  • Architectural Intelligence
  • Open Access

Editors and Affiliations

  • College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tongji University, Shanghai, China

    Philip F. Yuan, Hua Chai, Chao Yan, Neil Leach

About the editors

Philip F. Yuan is currently the Associate Dean, tenured professor of the College of Architecture and Urban Planning (CAUP) at Tongji University, Council Member of Architects Sector, Virtual and Automated Construction Sector as well as Academic Committee of Computational Design Sector at Architectural Society of China; Director of Academic Committee of Shanghai Digital Fabrication Engineering Technology Center; Co-Chair of DigitalFUTURES Association. His research mainly focuses on the field of performance-based architectural tectonics, the application of robotic fabrication equipment, and developments of robotic fabrication technologies.

Hua Chai is a PhD candidate at the College of Architecture and Urban Planning (CAUP), Tongji University. His research mainly focuses on developing robotic fabrication platforms and computational design strategies for advanced timber structures. He holds a Master degree of Architecture from Tongji University. In 2020, he visited the Institute for Computational Design and Construction (ICD), University of Stuttgart as a guest researcher, where he mainly focused on the development of mobile platform-based robotic timber architecture together with colleagues from ICD and Fab-Union. He has been involved in leading several international workshops on robotic timber construction DigitalFUTURES and ACADIA 2020.

Chao Yan is Postdoctoral Researcher at Tongji University where he conducts researches on the history of construction technology and digital design theory. He was Visiting Lecturer at China Academy of Art, where he has taught design studio and theory courses from 2014 to 2018, and Visiting Scholar at University of Virginia in 2019. His work focuses on the intersection between architectural theory and philosophy, and he has published extensively on the history and theory of body, neurophilosophy in architecture, post-68 architectural history, etc. His recent work is to construct a body perspective to review the history of digital design and fabrication.

Neil Leach is Architect and Theorist. He is currently Visiting Professor at Harvard University's Graduate School of Design, Visiting Professor at Tongji University, Adjunct Professor at the University of Southern California, and NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts Fellow. He has also taught at the Southern California Institute of Architecture, the Architectural Association, Cornell University, Columbia University, the Dessau Institute of Architecture, the Royal Danish School of Fine Arts, the Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia, the International University of Catalonia, the University of Bath, the University of Brighton, the University of Nottingham, and London Consortium.

Bibliographic Information

  • Book Title: Proceedings of the 2021 DigitalFUTURES

  • Book Subtitle: The 3rd International Conference on Computational Design and Robotic Fabrication (CDRF 2021)

  • Editors: Philip F. Yuan, Hua Chai, Chao Yan, Neil Leach

  • DOI:

  • Publisher: Springer Singapore

  • eBook Packages: Intelligent Technologies and Robotics, Intelligent Technologies and Robotics (R0)

  • Copyright Information: The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2022

  • License: CC BY

  • Hardcover ISBN: 978-981-16-5982-9Published: 22 September 2021

  • Softcover ISBN: 978-981-16-5985-0Published: 22 September 2021

  • eBook ISBN: 978-981-16-5983-6Published: 21 September 2021

  • Edition Number: 1

  • Number of Pages: XIV, 394

  • Number of Illustrations: 45 b/w illustrations, 266 illustrations in colour

  • Topics: Control, Robotics, Automation, Computer-Aided Engineering (CAD, CAE) and Design, Robotics

Buying options

Softcover Book USD 49.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)