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  • Open Access
  • © 2019

Open and Distance Education in Asia, Africa and the Middle East

National Perspectives in a Digital Age

  • Gives authoritative and up-to-date accounts of provision and trends in open and distance education

  • Identifies national approaches and policies for open and distance education, and similarities and differences between various countries

  • Provides a framework of theory, research and practice in the organization of open and distance education around the globe

Part of the book series: SpringerBriefs in Education (BRIEFSEDUCAT)

Part of the book sub series: SpringerBriefs in Open and Distance Education (BRIEFSODE)

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Softcover Book USD 24.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Table of contents (14 chapters)

  1. Front Matter

    Pages i-viii
  2. Introduction

    • Olaf Zawacki-Richter, Adnan Qayyum
    Pages 1-5Open Access
  3. China

    • Wei Li, Na Chen
    Pages 7-22Open Access
  4. China—Commentary

    • Jingjing Zhang
    Pages 23-25Open Access
  5. India

    • Santosh Panda, Suresh Garg
    Pages 27-42Open Access
  6. India—Commentary

    • Ramesh Chander Sharma
    Pages 43-45Open Access
  7. Russia

    • Olaf Zawacki-Richter, Sergey B. Kulikov, Diana Püplichhuysen, Daria Khanolainen
    Pages 47-62Open Access
  8. Russia—Commentary

    • Galia I. Kirilova
    Pages 63-65Open Access
  9. South Africa

    • Paul Prinsloo
    Pages 67-81Open Access
  10. South Africa—Commentary

    • Jenny Glennie, Tony Mays
    Pages 83-85Open Access
  11. South Korea

    • Cheolil Lim, Jihyun Lee, Hyoseon Choi
    Pages 87-100Open Access
  12. South Korea—Commentary

    • Insung Jung
    Pages 101-103Open Access
  13. Turkey

    • Yasar Kondakci, Svenja Bedenlier, Cengiz Hakan Aydin
    Pages 105-119Open Access
  14. Turkey—Commentary

    • Soner Yildirim, Müge Adnan
    Pages 121-123Open Access
  15. The State of Open and Distance Education

    • Adnan Qayyum, Olaf Zawacki-Richter
    Pages 125-140Open Access

About this book

This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.
This book describes the history, structure and institutions of open and distance education in six countries: China, India, Russia, Turkey, South Africa and South Korea.  It describes how open and distance education is evolving in a digital age to reflect the needs and circumstances of the national higher education systems in these countries.  It also explores the similarities and differences between how their open and distance higher education systems are managed and structured. This book is the second in a series, following Open and Distance Education in Australia, Europe and the Americas (Springer 2018).  Both books compare and draw conclusions about the nature of open and distance education in the context of various national higher education systems.  In a digital era characterized by the growing use of online, open and distance education, this book will prove particularly valuable for policy-makers and senior administrators who want to learn about establishing or expanding open and distance education services.  In addition, it offers a valuable reference guide for researchers, academics and students interested in understanding the different approaches to open and distance education.


  • education systems
  • open education
  • distance learning
  • distance and online education
  • eLearning
  • National higher education systems
  • Open learning
  • Open Universities
  • open access
  • learning and instruction

Editors and Affiliations

  • Institute of Education, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany

    Olaf Zawacki-Richter

  • Pennsylvania State University, State College, USA

    Adnan Qayyum

About the editors

Olaf Zawacki-Richter is a Professor of Educational Technology at the University of Oldenburg (Germany), where he teachers at the Faculty of Education and Social Sciences and the Centre for Lifelong Learning. From 2008 to 2010, he held a fixed-term professorship in Educational Technology at the FernUniversity in Hagen, Germany’s Open University. He serves on the editorial board of the International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning (IRRODL), Distance Education, Open Learning and the Open University of Sri Lanka Journal. He has been an invited keynote speaker, chair and reviewer at many international conferences. Together with Terry Anderson, Professor Emeritus at the Centre for Distance Education, Athabasca University, Canada, he edited the book Online Distance Education: Towards a Research Agenda.  He also co-edited Open and Distance Education in Australia, Europe and the Americas: National Perspectives in a Digital Age, with Adnan Qayyum.  He is Director of the Center for Open Education Research.

Adnan Qayyum is an Assistant Professor of Lifelong Learning and Adult Education at the Department of Learning and Performance Systems, Pennsylvania State University. His areas of expertise include open and distance education, adult education, comparative and international education, instructional design, curriculum planning, educational planning, and evaluation.  He is an Associate Editor for the American Journal of Distance Education, and was formerly an Associate Editor for the international journal Distance Education.  Together with Olaf Zawacki-Richter, he edited Open and Distance Education in Australia, Europe and the Americas: National Perspectives in a Digital Age.  He is a founding member of the Center for Open Education Research.

Bibliographic Information

Buying options

Softcover Book USD 24.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)