Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-viii
  2. Olaf Zawacki-Richter, Adnan Qayyum
    Pages 1-5 Open Access
  3. Wei Li, Na Chen
    Pages 7-22 Open Access
  4. Jingjing Zhang
    Pages 23-25 Open Access
  5. Santosh Panda, Suresh Garg
    Pages 27-42 Open Access
  6. Ramesh Chander Sharma
    Pages 43-45 Open Access
  7. Olaf Zawacki-Richter, Sergey B. Kulikov, Diana Püplichhuysen, Daria Khanolainen
    Pages 47-62 Open Access
  8. Galia I. Kirilova
    Pages 63-65 Open Access
  9. Paul Prinsloo
    Pages 67-81 Open Access
  10. Jenny Glennie, Tony Mays
    Pages 83-85 Open Access
  11. Cheolil Lim, Jihyun Lee, Hyoseon Choi
    Pages 87-100 Open Access
  12. Insung Jung
    Pages 101-103 Open Access
  13. Yasar Kondakci, Svenja Bedenlier, Cengiz Hakan Aydin
    Pages 105-119 Open Access
  14. Soner Yildirim, Müge Adnan
    Pages 121-123 Open Access
  15. Adnan Qayyum, Olaf Zawacki-Richter
    Pages 125-140 Open Access

About this book


This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.
This book describes the history, structure and institutions of open and distance education in six countries: China, India, Russia, Turkey, South Africa and South Korea.  It describes how open and distance education is evolving in a digital age to reflect the needs and circumstances of the national higher education systems in these countries.  It also explores the similarities and differences between how their open and distance higher education systems are managed and structured. This book is the second in a series, following Open and Distance Education in Australia, Europe and the Americas (Springer 2018).  Both books compare and draw conclusions about the nature of open and distance education in the context of various national higher education systems.  In a digital era characterized by the growing use of online, open and distance education, this book will prove particularly valuable for policy-makers and senior administrators who want to learn about establishing or expanding open and distance education services.  In addition, it offers a valuable reference guide for researchers, academics and students interested in understanding the different approaches to open and distance education.


education systems open education distance learning distance and online education eLearning National higher education systems Open learning Open Universities open access

Editors and affiliations

  • Olaf Zawacki-Richter
    • 1
  • Adnan Qayyum
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of EducationUniversity of OldenburgOldenburgGermany
  2. 2.Pennsylvania State UniversityState CollegeUSA

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2019
  • License CC BY
  • Publisher Name Springer, Singapore
  • eBook Packages Education
  • Print ISBN 978-981-13-5786-2
  • Online ISBN 978-981-13-5787-9
  • Series Print ISSN 2211-1921
  • Series Online ISSN 2211-193X
  • Buy this book on publisher's site