Handbook of Linguistic Annotation

  • Nancy Ide
  • James Pustejovsky

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-ix
  2. The Science of Annotation

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 19-19
    2. James Pustejovsky, Harry Bunt, Annie Zaenen
      Pages 21-72
    3. Nancy Ide, Christian Chiarcos, Manfred Stede, Steve Cassidy
      Pages 73-111
    4. Nancy Ide, Nicoletta Calzolari, Judith Eckle-Kohler, Dafydd Gibbon, Sebastian Hellmann, Kiyong Lee et al.
      Pages 113-165
    5. Mark A. Finlayson, Tomaž Erjavec
      Pages 167-191
    6. Graham Wilcock
      Pages 193-207
    7. Steve Cassidy, Thomas Schmidt
      Pages 209-227
    8. Chris Biemann, Kalina Bontcheva, Richard Eckart de Castilho, Iryna Gurevych, Seid Muhie Yimam
      Pages 229-256
    9. Markus Dickinson, Dan Tufiş
      Pages 257-276
    10. Massimo Poesio, Jon Chamberlain, Udo Kruschwitz
      Pages 277-295
    11. Ron Artstein
      Pages 297-313
    12. Anna Rumshisky, Amber Stubbs
      Pages 333-351
    13. Dan Flickinger, Stephan Oepen, Emily M. Bender
      Pages 353-377
    14. Stefan Th. Gries, Andrea L. Berez
      Pages 379-409
    15. Marie-Catherine de Marneffe, Christopher Potts
      Pages 411-438
  3. Case Studies

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 439-439
    2. Tomaž Erjavec
      Pages 441-462

About this book


This handbook offers a thorough treatment of the science of linguistic annotation. Leaders in the field guide the reader through the process of modeling, creating an annotation language, building a corpus and evaluating it for correctness. Essential reading for both computer scientists and linguistic researchers.
Linguistic annotation is an increasingly important activity in the field of computational linguistics because of its critical role in the development of language models for natural language processing applications. Part one of this book covers all phases of the linguistic annotation process, from annotation scheme design and choice of representation format through both the manual and automatic annotation process, evaluation, and iterative improvement of annotation accuracy.  The second part of the book includes case studies of annotation projects across the spectrum of linguistic annotation types, including morpho-syntactic tagging, syntactic analyses, a range of semantic analyses (semantic roles, named entities, sentiment and opinion), time and event and spatial analyses, and discourse level analyses including discourse structure, co-reference, etc. Each case study addresses the various phases and processes discussed in the chapters of part one.


Corpus linguistics Evaluating annotations Intergration of annotations Language models for natural language processing applications Linguistic annotation morphosyntactic tagging

Editors and affiliations

  • Nancy Ide
    • 1
  • James Pustejovsky
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceVassar CollegePoughkeepsieUSA
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science, Volen Center for Complex SystemsBrandeis UniversityWalthamUSA

Bibliographic information

  • DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-0881-2
  • Copyright Information Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017
  • Publisher Name Springer, Dordrecht
  • eBook Packages Social Sciences
  • Print ISBN 978-94-024-0879-9
  • Online ISBN 978-94-024-0881-2
  • About this book