Towards Free Trade in Agriculture

  • Kirit S. Parikh
  • Günther Fischer
  • Klaus Frohberg
  • Odd Gulbrandsen

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xi
  2. Kirit S. Parikh, Günther Fischer, Klaus Frohberg, Odd Gulbrandsen
    Pages 1-14
  3. Kirit S. Parikh, Günther Fischer, Klaus Frohberg, Odd Gulbrandsen
    Pages 15-26
  4. Kirit S. Parikh, Günther Fischer, Klaus Frohberg, Odd Gulbrandsen
    Pages 27-54
  5. Kirit S. Parikh, Günther Fischer, Klaus Frohberg, Odd Gulbrandsen
    Pages 55-86
  6. Kirit S. Parikh, Günther Fischer, Klaus Frohberg, Odd Gulbrandsen
    Pages 87-134
  7. Kirit S. Parikh, Günther Fischer, Klaus Frohberg, Odd Gulbrandsen
    Pages 135-167
  8. Kirit S. Parikh, Günther Fischer, Klaus Frohberg, Odd Gulbrandsen
    Pages 169-192
  9. Kirit S. Parikh, Günther Fischer, Klaus Frohberg, Odd Gulbrandsen
    Pages 193-226
  10. Kirit S. Parikh, Günther Fischer, Klaus Frohberg, Odd Gulbrandsen
    Pages 227-235
  11. Back Matter
    Pages 237-357

About this book

Introduction

Agriculture seems to be a difficult sector to manage for most governments. Developing countries face tough dilemmas in deciding on appropriate price poli­ eies to stimulate food production and maintain stable, preferably low, prices for poor consumers. Governments in developed countries face similar difficult deci­ sions. They are called upon to give income guarantees to farmers whose incomes are unstable and relatively low when compared to those in the nonagricultural sector. These guarantees often lead to ever-increasing budgetary outlays and unwanted agricultural surpluses. High prices make new investments and the application of new technologies more attractive than world prices warrant, and a process is set in motion where technological innovation attains amomenturn of its own, in turn requiring price policies that maintain their rates of return. Surpluses are disposed of with subsidies in domestic markets or in the international market. Price competition reduces the market share of other exporters, who may be efficient producers, unless they are willing to engage in subsidy competition. This lowers export earnings and farm incomes or depletes the public resources of developing countries that export competing products. Retaliatory measures have led to frictions and further distortions of world prices. Every so orten the major agricultural exporters - the USA, the EC, Aus­ tralia, or Canada - accuse one another of unfair intervention. Though they have agreed to discuss agricultural trade liberalization under GATT negotiations, if anything, the expenditure on farm support has continued to increase in both the EC and the USA.

Keywords

agriculture

Authors and affiliations

  • Kirit S. Parikh
    • 1
  • Günther Fischer
    • 1
  • Klaus Frohberg
    • 1
  • Odd Gulbrandsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Food and Agriculture Program (FAP)International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)LaxenburgAustria

Bibliographic information

  • DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-3558-2
  • Copyright Information Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 1988
  • Publisher Name Springer, Dordrecht
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-94-017-3560-5
  • Online ISBN 978-94-017-3558-2
  • About this book