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The Paraneuron

  • Tsuneo Fujita
  • Tomio Kanno
  • Shigeru Kobayashi

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-XI
  2. General Part

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 3-5
    3. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 6-12
    4. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 13-39
    5. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 40-54
    6. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 55-71
    7. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 72-77
    8. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 78-84
    9. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 85-92
    10. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 93-106
    11. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 107-117
    12. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 118-131
  3. Special Part

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 133-133
    2. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 135-144
    3. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 145-150
    4. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 151-155
    5. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 156-164
    6. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 165-184
    7. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 185-189
    8. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 190-198
    9. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 199-206
    10. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 207-213
    11. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 214-219
    12. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 220-227
    13. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 228-234
    14. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 235-244
    15. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 245-253
    16. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 254-260
    17. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 261-266
    18. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 267-272
    19. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 273-277
    20. Tsuneo Fujita, Tomio Kanno, Shigeru Kobayashi
      Pages 278-285
  4. Back Matter
    Pages 287-367

About this book

Introduction

The regulation of the organism has traditionally been ascribed to two distinct systems-the nervous and the endocrine. Though coordination between the two systems has been acknowledged, researchers and authors have tended to deal with them as comprising separate categories of cells involved in different activities. With this approach, a given regulatory mechanism would be evaluated as to whether it should be accounted for by nervous or endocrine functions. The past 15 years, however, have witnessed numerous important discoveries and conceptual developments concerning the morphological, physiological, and bio­ chemical relations between the nervous and endocrine systems. Advances in im­ munocytochemical studies have revealed that there are a wide variety of messenger substances that function in both regulatory systems. As a result, researchers have been stimulated to investigate neuronlike properties of endocrine cells and, con­ versely, endocrine or secretory features of neurons. It has thus become obvious that the rigidities in the classic criteria of neurotransmitters and hormones may rather impede further advances in these research fields. The activities of neurons are no longer evaluated simply in terms of EPSP, IPSP, and the release of classic trans­ mitters such as acetylcholine, noradrenaline, and GABA. Hormonal actions are no longer analyzed solely with regard to concentrations of classic aminic and peptidic hormones in the systemic blood circulation. The concept of the paraneuron, which we proposed in 1975, has become one of the theoretical bases for the development of this trend of study.

Keywords

Hypophyse biosynthesis cell cognition evolution hormone nervous system neurons neurotransmitter physiology retina skin vertebrates

Authors and affiliations

  • Tsuneo Fujita
    • 1
  • Tomio Kanno
    • 2
  • Shigeru Kobayashi
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyUniversity of Niigata School of MedicineNiigataJapan
  2. 2.Department of Physiology Faculty of Veterinary MedicineHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  3. 3.Department of AnatomyYamanashi Medical CollegeTamaho,YamanashiJapan

Bibliographic information