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  • Book
  • Open Access
  • © 2022

Efficient Screening Techniques to Identify Mutants with TR4 Resistance in Banana


  • The book consists of 11 chapters for mutation breeding and Fusarium wilt resistance screening in banana

  • Chapters are written by experienced scientists in induced mutagenesis, banana breeding and Fusarium wilt research

  • An important guide for breeders and phytopathologists engaged in mutation-assisted breeding for TR4 resistance in banana

  • A project of the IAEA, through its Joint Centre’s programme with the Food and Agricultural Organization

  • 9844 Accesses

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Softcover Book USD 49.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Table of contents (11 chapters)

  1. Front Matter

    Pages i-xvi
  2. Mutation Induction

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 1-1
    2. Induced Mutagenesis and In Vitro Mutant Population Development in Musa spp.

      • Joanna Jankowicz-Cieslak, Florian Goessnitzer, Bradley J. Till, Ivan L. Ingelbrecht
      Pages 3-20Open Access
  3. Fusarium TR4 Screening Technologies

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 31-31
    2. An Optimised Greenhouse Protocol for Screening Banana Plants for Fusarium Wilt Resistance

      • Privat Ndayihanzamaso, Sheryl Bothma, Diane Mostert, George Mahuku, Altus Viljoen
      Pages 65-77Open Access
    3. Lab-Based Screening Using Hydroponic System for the Rapid Detection of Fusarium Wilt TR4 Tolerance/Resistance of Banana

      • Norazlina Noordin, Affrida Abu Hassan, Anis Nadia Mohd Faisol Mahadevan, Zaiton Ahmad, Sakinah Ariffin
      Pages 79-95Open Access
    4. Field Screening of Gamma-Irradiated Cavendish Bananas

      • Gaudencia A. Lantican
      Pages 97-109Open Access
  4. Mutation Detection Using Genomics Tools

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 111-111
    2. Mutation Detection in Gamma-Irradiated Banana Using Low Coverage Copy Number Variation

      • Joanna Jankowicz-Cieslak, Ivan L. Ingelbrecht, Bradley J. Till
      Pages 113-127Open Access
    3. A Protocol for Detection of Large Chromosome Variations in Banana Using Next Generation Sequencing

      • Catherine Breton, Alberto Cenci, Julie Sardos, Rachel Chase, Max Ruas, Mathieu Rouard et al.
      Pages 129-148Open Access
  5. Low-cost In Vitro Methods for Banana Micropropagation

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 149-149
    2. Low-Cost In Vitro Options for Banana Mutation Breeding

      • Babita Jhurree-Dussoruth
      Pages 151-176Open Access
    3. Protocol for Mass Propagation of Plants Using a Low-Cost Bioreactor

      • Affrida Abu Hassan, Norazlina Noordin, Zaiton Ahmad, Mustapha Akil, Faiz Ahmad, Rusli Ibrahim
      Pages 177-187Open Access

About this book

Bananas are a staple food for over 500 million people and are also an important cash crop. Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, is one of the most destructive diseases of banana globally. Since the 1990s, an aggressive variant of this fungus, called Tropical Race 4 (TR4), severely affected banana plantations in Southeast Asia from where it spread to other continents, including Latin America, where the global banana export market is primarily centred. TR4 is a soil borne pathogen making the disease difficult to contain.  

The Joint FAO/IAEA Centre of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture implemented a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) ‘Efficient Screening Techniques to Identify Mutants with Disease Resistance for Coffee and Banana” (2015-2020). This CRP brought together experts from Asia, Europe and Africa in addition to experts of the Joint FAO/IAEA Centre to develop resistance against TR4 through mutation-assisted breeding. Induced mutagenesis is particularly attractive in case of banana since most cultivated bananas are seedless, thus hampering conventional cross breeding.

This Open Access book is a compilation of the protocols developed under the CRP specifically for TR4. The first part covers methods for mutation induction, including the integrated use of innovative single-cell culture with mutagenesis techniques. The book also describes up-to-date phenotypic screening methods for TR4 resistance in banana under field-, greenhouse- and laboratory conditions.  Finally, molecular and bioinformatics tools for genome-wide mutation discovery following Next Generation Sequencing are also described.

Given the imminent threat of Fusarium Wilt TR4 on banana production globally, it is our hope and intention that the book will serve as a timely reference and guide for banana breeders and pathologists worldwide who are committed to the genetic improvement of banana for Fusarium wilt resistance.


  • Musa
  • Fusarium wilt TR4
  • mutation breeding
  • phenotyping
  • genotyping
  • NGS
  • open access

Editors and Affiliations

  • Plant Breeding and Genetics Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Centre of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, IAEA Laboratories Seibersdorf, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, Vienna, Austria

    Joanna Jankowicz-Cieslak, Ivan L. Ingelbrecht

About the editors

Joanna Jankowicz-Cieslak is a plant molecular biologist (and genome scientist) with over 17 years’ experience in the field of molecular biology, genomics and crop improvement with the use of mutation breeding techniques. She holds a PhD in biological sciences from the Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland (2011) and a Habilitation degree in biology from the University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland (2019) for her work on mutation induction and functional genomics of plants of special importance in the global South. Her research is focused on the development and adaptation of new tools, protocols and guidelines for mutation induction and discovery in vegetatively propagated crops such as banana. She has extensive experience with induced mutagenesis, in vitro tissue culture, and the application of genomics tools for mutation detection in banana. She has established the first reverse genetics approach for banana and showed that induced mutations in banana are stably inherited over successive in vitro generations. She (co-) authored over 60 original research papers, monographs and book chapters as well as co-edited three protocol books.


Ivan L. Ingelbrecht is involved at the Joint FAO/IAEA Centre of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture at the IAEA ( as Head of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Laboratory in the coordination of R&D in the field of mutation-assisted plant breeding. Since 1994 he has worked on the development of modern biotechnology and molecular genetics tools for the improvement of banana, sugarcane, sorghum and cassava for universities and international organizations in Africa, Europe, and the USA. He has extensive expertise in R&D project management as a project lead and senior R&D Manager at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Nigeria ( (2001-2010). His current research is focused on integrating genomics technologies with advanced cell culture and conventional mutagenesis techniques of banana, coffee and sorghum for improved food and nutrition security, climate change adaptation, and transboundary disease resistance. He has published over 80 research items, including 56 peer-reviewed journal articles, co-authored 3 books and 6 book chapters in the field of plant breeding and biotechnology. He holds a PhD in Plant Molecular Biology from Ghent University, Belgium (1993).

Bibliographic Information

  • Book Title: Efficient Screening Techniques to Identify Mutants with TR4 Resistance in Banana

  • Book Subtitle: Protocols

  • Editors: Joanna Jankowicz-Cieslak, Ivan L. Ingelbrecht

  • DOI:

  • Publisher: Springer Berlin, Heidelberg

  • eBook Packages: Biomedical and Life Sciences, Biomedical and Life Sciences (R0)

  • Copyright Information: IAEA: International Atomic Energy Agency 2022

  • License: CC BY IGO

  • Hardcover ISBN: 978-3-662-64914-5

  • Softcover ISBN: 978-3-662-64917-6

  • eBook ISBN: 978-3-662-64915-2

  • Edition Number: 1

  • Number of Pages: XVI, 187

  • Number of Illustrations: 1 b/w illustrations

  • Topics: Plant Pathology, Plant Genetics, Agriculture

Buying options

Softcover Book USD 49.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)