Utilization of Residual Forest Biomass

  • Pentti Hakkila

Part of the Springer Series in Wood Science book series (SSWOO)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-XV
  2. Pentti Hakkila
    Pages 1-10
  3. Pentti Hakkila
    Pages 204-260
  4. Pentti Hakkila
    Pages 261-304
  5. Pentti Hakkila
    Pages 305-328
  6. Pentti Hakkila
    Pages 329-351
  7. Pentti Hakkila
    Pages 352-477
  8. Pentti Hakkila
    Pages 478-516
  9. Back Matter
    Pages 517-568

About this book


An increase in the demand for wood results in improved recovery and less residual biomass in the forests. Paradoxically, interest in forest residue as a renewable source of raw material seems to be in a reverse ratio to its availability in a certain area. Finland and Sweden are probably more dependent on forestry and forest in­ dustries than any other developed countries in the world. A sufficiency of raw ma­ terial for integrated forest industries is vital for the national economy of both countries, and a great deal of attention is being paid to the long-term potential of unutilized biomass left behind in logging operations. Furthermore, since these countries possess no reserves of fossil fuels, and since their per-capita consump­ tion of primary energy is exceptionally high, they also consider unmerchantable forest biomass a realistic source of indigenous energy. A joint Nordic research project on harvesting and utilization of logging residue was carried out in 1969-1976 under the auspices of the Nordic Research Council on Forest Operations. This fruitful cooperation soon gave rise to related national projects in Sweden, Finland, Norway, and Denmark, stimulating further research and producing practical applications. Concurrently, particularly after the worldwide energy crisis in 1973, research on all aspects of utilization of forest bio­ mass mushroomed in the United States, Canada, and the Soviet Union. An ex­ plosive increase occurred in both the number and diversity of biomass studies.


biomass development forest paper roots transport tree

Authors and affiliations

  • Pentti Hakkila
    • 1
  1. 1.Finnish Forest Research InstituteHelsinkiFinland

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989
  • Publisher Name Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-3-642-74074-9
  • Online ISBN 978-3-642-74072-5
  • Series Print ISSN 1431-8563
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