The book reports on selected projects on the High Performance Computer in Bavaria (HLRB). The projects originate from the fields of fluid dynamics, astrophysics and cosmology, computational physics including high energy physics, computational chemistry and materials sciences, geophysics, biosciences, and computer sciences. Moreover, results from KONWIHR (the Competence Network for Technical and Scientific High Performance Computing in Bavaria) are presented. The articles provide an overview of the broad range of applications that require high performance computing for solving challenging problems. For each project the scientific background is described, along with the results achieved and methodology used. The book also describes the latest advances in high performance applications and reports on the performance and scaling numbers.