Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xiii
  2. Stig Tenold
    Pages 1-20 Open Access
  3. Stig Tenold
    Pages 63-89 Open Access
  4. Stig Tenold
    Pages 133-158 Open Access
  5. Stig Tenold
    Pages 159-194 Open Access
  6. Stig Tenold
    Pages 195-230 Open Access
  7. Stig Tenold
    Pages 231-257 Open Access
  8. Stig Tenold
    Pages 259-274 Open Access
  9. Stig Tenold
    Pages 275-310 Open Access
  10. Back Matter
    Pages 311-327

About this book


This book is open access under a CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

 This open access book discusses how Norwegian shipping companies played a crucial role in global shipping markets in the 20th century, at times transporting more than ten per cent of world seaborne trade. Chapters explore how Norway managed to remain competitive, despite being a high labour-cost country in an industry with global competition. Among the features that are emphasised are market developments, business strategies and political decisions

The Norwegian experience was shaped by the main breaking points in 20th century world history, such as the two world wars, and by long-term trends, such as globalization and liberalization. The shipping companies introduced technological and organizational innovations to build or maintain a competitive advantage in a rapidly changing world.

 The growing importance of offshore petroleum exploration in the North Sea from the 1970s was both a threat and an opportunity to the shipping companies. By adapting both business strategies and the political regime to the new circumstances, the Norwegian shipping sector managed to maintain a leading position internationally.


maritime economics Norwegian shipping industry maritime history World War I World War II Shipping during the Golden Age Shipping crisis The Norwegian International Ship Register Open access

Authors and affiliations

  • Stig Tenold
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsNHH – Norwegian School of EconomicsBergenNorway

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2019
  • License CC BY-NC-ND
  • Publisher Name Palgrave Macmillan, Cham
  • eBook Packages Economics and Finance
  • Print ISBN 978-3-319-95638-1
  • Online ISBN 978-3-319-95639-8
  • Buy this book on publisher's site