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Rethinking the Three R's in Animal Research

Replacement, Reduction, Refinement

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  • © 2018


  • Includes the concepts of humanity versus speciesism
  • Explores the controversy with respect to the use of nonhuman primates
  • Looks at the mismatch between micro-motives and macro-behavior

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About this book

This work challenges the current reliance on "The Three R's" or Replacement, Reduction and Refinement which direct most animal research in the behavioral sciences. The author argues that these principles that were developed in the 1950's to guide the use of animals in research studies are outdated. He suggests that the notions of refinement and reduction are often ill-defined and can be useful only in cases where replacement is impossible. 

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Table of contents (5 chapters)

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

    Jan Lauwereyns

About the author

Jan Lauwereyns is Professor of Psychology in the Faculty of Arts and Science at Kyushu University, Japan.

Bibliographic Information

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