This book provides readers with a snapshot of recent methods for non-stationary vibration analysis of machinery. It covers a broad range of advanced techniques in condition monitoring of machinery, such as mathematical models, signal processing and pattern recognition methods and artificial intelligence methods, and their practical applications to the analysis of nonstationarities. Each chapter, accepted after a rigorous peer-review process, reports on a selected, original piece of work presented and discussed at the International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations, CMMNO’2016, held on September 12 – 16, 2016, in Gliwice, Poland. The contributions cover advances in both theory and practice in a variety of subfields, such as: smart materials and structures; fluid-structure interaction; structural acoustics as well as computational vibro-acoustics and numerical methods. Further topics include: engines control, noise identification, robust design, flow-induced vibration and many others. By presenting state-of-the-art in predictive maintenance solutions and discussing important industrial issues the book offers a valuable resource to both academics and professionals and is expected to facilitate communication and collaboration between the two groups.