© 2018

Factor X

Challenges, Implementation Strategies and Examples for a Sustainable Use of Natural Resources

  • Harry Lehmann

Part of the Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science book series (ECOE, volume 32)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-ix
  2. Challenges

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Harry Lehmann, Friedrich Schmidt-Bleek, Christopher Manstein
      Pages 3-12
    3. Leida Rijnhout, Magda Stoczkiewicz, Meadhbh Bolger
      Pages 13-30
    4. Ullrich Lorenz, Harald Ulrik Sverdrup, Kristin Vala Ragnarsdottir
      Pages 31-43
    5. Stephan Lutter, Stefan Giljum, Martin Bruckner
      Pages 45-69
    6. Jan Kosmol, Felix Müller, Hermann Keßler
      Pages 71-92
  3. Implementation Strategies

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 113-113
    2. Riina Antikainen, David Lazarevic, Jyri Seppälä
      Pages 115-129
    3. R. Andreas Kraemer
      Pages 131-148
    4. Serge Latouche
      Pages 277-284

About this book


This book describes and analyses necessities for a more resource-efficient world. It discusses solutions for a more sustainable use of natural resources, addressing decision-makers and experts from the fields of policy development, industry, academia, civil society, and the media. The book presents strategies, concrete ways and examples of achieving more sustainable resource use in practice.

Following on from two previous titles published on Factor X by the Umweltbundesamt (German Environment Agency), entitled “Factor X: Policy, Strategies and Instruments for a Sustainable Resource Use” (2013) and “Factor X: Re-source – Designing the Recycling Society” (2014), this book further investigates how savings in natural resources and resource efficiency improvements could be achieved, focusing on good practice examples that cover different resource categories, pursue different efficiency strategies and come from different sectors, e.g. innovative products or serv
ices, technology, management approaches, systemic approaches, etc.

The background against which this work is done has a highly comprehensive span, from the first Declaration of the Factor X Club in the nineties, to the European Commission’s Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe that was published in September 2011, through to the German Federal government’s German Resource Efficiency Programme (ProgRess I and II) in 2012 and 2016, the G7 Alliance for Resource Efficiency, and most recently the development and implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG).


Sustainable development Sustainable resource use Raw material Resource efficiency Eco efficiency

Editors and affiliations

  • Harry Lehmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Factor X/10 ClubGerman Environment AgencyDessau-RoßlauGermany

About the editors

Harry Lehmann, General Director, Environmental Planning and Sustainability Strategies, Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Germany

A physicist, Dr. Harry Lehmann has been General Director of Division I “Environmental Planning and Sustainability Strategies” of the German Federal Environment Agency since 2004. He was an early member, and is now the President, of the Factor 10 Club for resource productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. He is one of the founders of Eurosolar, the European Association for Renewable Energy. In 2011 he became Executive Chairman of the World Renewable Energy Council. He has published several books. Since 1985, Harry Lehmann has lectured at various universities, most recently at the Leuphana University of Luneburg. 

Bibliographic information