Advances in Physarum Machines

Sensing and Computing with Slime Mould

  • Andrew Adamatzky

Part of the Emergence, Complexity and Computation book series (ECC, volume 21)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-x
  2. Experimental

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Martin Grube
      Pages 23-35
    3. Andrew Adamatzky, Jeff Jones, Richard Mayne, Soichiro Tsuda, James Whiting
      Pages 37-74
    4. Ella Gale, Andrew Adamatzky, Ben de Lacy Costello
      Pages 75-90
    5. Alice Dimonte, Silvia Battistoni, Victor Erokhin
      Pages 91-107
    6. Seiya Kasai, Ryo Wakamiya, Yushi Abe, Masashi Aono, Makoto Naruse, Hiroyoshi Miwa et al.
      Pages 109-132
    7. Richard Mayne, Andrew Adamatzky
      Pages 133-152
    8. Ben De Lacy Costello, Andrew Adamatzky
      Pages 165-193
    9. Vincent Ricigliano, Brent A. Berger, Javed Chitaman, Jingjing Tong, Veronica Thompson, Aedric Lim et al.
      Pages 195-210
    10. James G. H. Whiting, Ben De Lacy Costello, Andrew Adamatzky
      Pages 211-230
    11. Andrew Adamatzky
      Pages 231-269
    12. James G. H. Whiting, Andrew Adamatzky
      Pages 271-284
    13. Benjamin Taylor, Andrew Adamatzky, John Greenman, Ioannis Ieropoulos
      Pages 285-298
    14. Richard Mayne, Michail-Antisthenis Tsompanas, Georgios Ch. Sirakoulis, Andrew Adamatzky
      Pages 299-309
    15. Andrew Adamatzky, Genaro J. Martinez
      Pages 337-348
    16. Vasilis Evangelidis, Michail-Antisthenis I. Tsompanas, Georgios Ch. Sirakoulis, Andrew Adamatzky
      Pages 349-372
    17. Tomohiro Shirakawa
      Pages 373-394
    18. Andrew Adamatzky, Rachel Armstrong, Ben De Lacy Costello, Jeff Jones
      Pages 395-410
  3. Theoretical

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 411-411
    2. Y. V. Pershin, M. Di Ventra
      Pages 413-422
    3. Takuya Umedachi, Akio Ishiguro
      Pages 479-488
    4. T. Schön, M. Stetter, O. Belova, A. Koch, A. M. Tomé, E. W. Lang
      Pages 489-517
    5. Xiaoge Zhang, Cai Gao, Yong Deng, Zili Zhang
      Pages 519-562
    6. Michail-Antisthenis I. Tsompanas, Georgios Ch. Sirakoulis, Andrew Adamatzky
      Pages 563-594
    7. Nikolaos I. Dourvas, Michail-Antisthenis I. Tsompanas, Georgios Ch. Sirakoulis
      Pages 595-617
    8. Andrew Schumann, Krzysztof Pancerz
      Pages 619-649
    9. Andrew Schumann
      Pages 651-685
    10. Andrew Adamatzky, Jeff Jones
      Pages 687-703
  4. Music and Art

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 753-753
    2. Edward Braund, Raymond Sparrow, Eduardo Miranda
      Pages 755-775
    3. Theresa Schubert, Michael Markert, Moritz Dressler, Andrew Adamatzky
      Pages 801-811
    4. Andrew Adamatzky, Rachel Armstrong, Jeff Jones, Yukio Gunji
      Pages 813-830
  5. Back Matter
    Pages 831-839

About this book


This book is devoted to Slime mould Physarum polycephalum, which is a large single cell capable for distributed sensing, concurrent information processing, parallel computation and decentralized actuation. The ease of culturing and experimenting with Physarum makes this slime mould an ideal substrate for real-world implementations of unconventional sensing and computing devices


The book is a treatise of theoretical and experimental laboratory studies on sensing and computing properties of slime mould, and on the development of mathematical and logical theories of Physarum behavior.


It is shown how to make logical gates and circuits, electronic devices (memristors, diodes, transistors, wires, chemical and tactile sensors) with the slime mould. The book demonstrates how to modify properties of Physarum computing circuits with functional nano-particles and polymers, to interface the slime mould with field-programmable arrays, and to use Physarum as a controller of microbial fuel cells.


A unique multi-agent model of slime is shown to serve well as a software slime mould capable for solving problems of computational geometry and graph optimization. The multiagent model is complemented by cellular automata models with parallel accelerations. Presented mathematical models inspired by Physarum include non-quantum implementation of Shor's factorization, structural learning, computation of shortest path tree on dynamic graphs, supply chain network design, p-adic computing and syllogistic reasoning.


The book is a unique composition of vibrant and lavishly illustrated essays which will inspire scientists, engineers and artists to exploit natural phenomena in designs of future and emergent computing and sensing devices. It is a 'bible' of experimental computing with spatially extended living substrates, it spanstopics from biology of slime mould, to bio-sensing, to unconventional computing devices androbotics, non-classical logics and music and arts.




Natural Computing Biological Computing Cybernetics Slime Mould Physarum Bioelectronics Complexity Future and Emergent Technologies Organic Electronic Memristors Hybrid Electronics

Editors and affiliations

  • Andrew Adamatzky
    • 1
  1. 1.Unconventional Computing CentreUniversity of the West of EnglandBristolUnited Kingdom

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Engineering Engineering (R0)
  • Print ISBN 978-3-319-26661-9
  • Online ISBN 978-3-319-26662-6
  • Series Print ISSN 2194-7287
  • Series Online ISSN 2194-7295
  • Buy this book on publisher's site