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  • Book
  • Open Access
  • © 2015

Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin

  • Provides an up-to-date regional assessment of climate change in the Baltic Sea basin

  • Treats atmospheric, hydrological, oceanographic, biogeochemical, ecosystem and societal changes now and in the future

  • Comprehensive reference and text book for professional and academic use

Part of the book series: Regional Climate Studies (REGCLIMATE)

Buying options

Softcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Table of contents (25 chapters)

  1. Front Matter

    Pages i-xxxviii
  2. Introduction and Summary

    • Hans von Storch, Anders Omstedt, Janet Pawlak, Marcus Reckermann
    Pages 1-22Open Access
  3. Long-term Climate Change

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 23-23
    2. Climate Change During the Holocene (Past 12,000 Years)

      • Irena Borzenkova, Eduardo Zorita, Olga Borisova, Laimdota Kalniņa, Dalia Kisielienė, Tiiu Koff et al.
      Pages 25-49Open Access
    3. The Historical Time Frame (Past 1000 Years)

      • Tadeusz Niedźwiedź, Rüdiger Glaser, Daniel Hansson, Samuli Helama, Vladimir Klimenko, Ewa Łupikasza et al.
      Pages 51-65Open Access
  4. Recent Climate Change (Past 200 Years)

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 67-67
    2. Recent Change—Atmosphere

      • Anna Rutgersson, Jaak Jaagus, Frederik Schenk, Martin Stendel, Lars Bärring, Agrita Briede et al.
      Pages 69-97Open Access
    3. Recent Change—River Run-off and Ice Cover

      • Jukka Käyhkö, Elga Apsite, Anna Bolek, Nikolai Filatov, Sergey Kondratyev, Johanna Korhonen et al.
      Pages 99-116Open Access
    4. Recent Change—Terrestrial Cryosphere

      • Sirpa Rasmus, Jan Boelhouwers, Agrita Briede, Ian A. Brown, Malgorzata Falarz, Susanne Ingvander et al.
      Pages 117-129Open Access
    5. Recent Change—Marine Circulation and Stratification

      • Jüri Elken, Andreas Lehmann, Kai Myrberg
      Pages 131-144Open Access
    6. Recent Change—Sea Ice

      • Jari J. Haapala, Iina Ronkainen, Natalija Schmelzer, Marzenna Sztobryn
      Pages 145-153Open Access
    7. Recent Change—Sea Level and Wind Waves

      • Birgit Hünicke, Eduardo Zorita, Tarmo Soomere, Kristine S. Madsen, Milla Johansson, Ülo Suursaar
      Pages 155-185Open Access
  5. Future Climate Change

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 187-187
    2. Projected Change—Models and Methodology

      • Joanna Wibig, Douglas Maraun, Rasmus Benestad, Erik Kjellström, Philip Lorenz, Ole Bøssing Christensen
      Pages 189-215Open Access
    3. Projected Change—Atmosphere

      • Ole Bøssing Christensen, Erik Kjellström, Eduardo Zorita
      Pages 217-233Open Access
    4. Projected Change—Hydrology

      • Torben Obel Sonnenborg
      Pages 235-241Open Access
    5. Projected Change—Marine Physics

      • H. E. Markus Meier
      Pages 243-252Open Access
    6. Projected Change—Sea Level

      • Aslak Grinsted
      Pages 253-263Open Access
  6. Environmental Impacts of Climate Change

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 265-265
    2. Environmental Impacts—Atmospheric Chemistry

      • David Simpson, Jerzy Bartnicki, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Hans-Christen Hansson, Ole Hertel, Joakim Langner et al.
      Pages 267-289Open Access

About this book

​This book is an update of the first BACC assessment, published in 2008. It offers new and updated scientific findings in regional climate research for the Baltic Sea basin. These include climate changes since the last glaciation (approx. 12,000 years ago), changes in the recent past (the last 200 years), climate projections up until 2100 using state-of-the-art regional climate models and an assessment of climate-change impacts on terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. There are dedicated new chapters on sea-level rise, coastal erosion and impacts on urban areas. A new set of chapters deals with possible causes of regional climate change along with the global effects of increased greenhouse gas concentrations, namely atmospheric aerosols and land-cover change.

The evidence collected and presented in this book shows that the regional climate has already started to change and this is expected to continue. Projections of potential future climates show that the region will probably become considerably warmer and wetter in some parts, but dryer in others. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems have already shown adjustments to increased temperatures and are expected to undergo further changes in the near future.

The BACC II Author Team consists of 141 scientists from 12 countries, covering various disciplines related to climate research and related impacts. BACC II is a project of the Baltic Earth research network and contributes to the World Climate Research Programme.


  • BACC
  • BACC books
  • Baltic Sea
  • Environmental Impacts
  • Northern Europe
  • Regional Climate Change
  • Regional Climate Projections

Editors and Affiliations

  • c/o International Baltic Earth Secretariat Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany

    The BACC II Author Team

Bibliographic Information

  • Book Title: Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin

  • Editors: The BACC II Author Team

  • Series Title: Regional Climate Studies

  • DOI:

  • Publisher: Springer Cham

  • eBook Packages: Earth and Environmental Science, Earth and Environmental Science (R0)

  • Copyright Information: The Editor(s) (if applicable) and the Author(s) 2015

  • License: CC BY-NC

  • Hardcover ISBN: 978-3-319-16005-4Published: 20 April 2015

  • Softcover ISBN: 978-3-319-36883-2Published: 08 October 2016

  • eBook ISBN: 978-3-319-16006-1Published: 03 April 2015

  • Series ISSN: 1862-0248

  • Series E-ISSN: 1865-505X

  • Edition Number: 1

  • Number of Pages: XXXVIII, 501

  • Number of Illustrations: 58 b/w illustrations, 174 illustrations in colour

  • Topics: Earth System Sciences, Atmospheric Science

Buying options

Softcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)