Skip to main content
Palgrave Macmillan

Between Diplomacy and Non-Diplomacy

Foreign relations of Kurdistan-Iraq and Palestine

  • Book
  • © 2023


  • Examines causes, constraints, motives, capability and capacities of Kurdistan-Iraq and Palestine's foreign policies
  • Offers a better understanding of paradiplomatic activities of de facto states as non-state actors
  • Explores how and why both de facto states develop paradiplomatic activities and relations

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this book

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

eBook USD 109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book USD 139.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book USD 139.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Other ways to access

Licence this eBook for your library

Institutional subscriptions

About this book

This book compares the involvement of Kurdistan-Iraq and Palestine (Palestinian Territory of the West Bank and Gaza Strip) in international relations from the viewpoint of their practical performance. In particular, it provides an overview over the current Kurdish and Palestinian paradiplomatic activities and their practical performance in terms of their capabilities, capacities and practical achievements. The contributing authors analyze the evolution of paradiplomacy, the domestic legal and institutional framework, the goals, instruments, and capabilities of Kurdish and Palestinian paradiplomacy, and selected foreign relations. The book identifies the similarities and differences between the paradiplomacy of Kurdistan-Iraq and Palestine with regard to a set of guidelines: causes, legal foundations, institutionalization, predominant motives, practical implementation, and outcomes of paradiplomacy. It provides empirical explanations about how and why Kurdistan-Iraq and Palestine develop and practice paradiplomacy and contributes to a better understanding of Kurdistan-Iraq’s and Palestine’s involvement in international affairs and their activities.

Similar content being viewed by others


Table of contents (15 chapters)

  1. The Rise of Paradiplomacy

  2. The Foundations of Paradiplomacy

  3. Paradiplomacy in Practice (Selected Relations)


“Kurds and Palestinians have never been fully integrated into the international society of sovereign states. Yet, they are well represented by entities that control territory, provide governance and secure popular legitimacy. This original and innovative volume, featuring scholars from the region, comparatively explains the growth, evolution and legal basis of Kurdistan-Iraq and Palestine’s paradiplomatic cultural, economic and political engagements with sovereign states and other actors.” (Scott Pegg, Professor, Department of Political Science, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), USA, and author of International Society and the De Facto State)

“Gürbey, Hofmann and Ibrahim Seyder have assembled a much-needed and timely set of analyses that emphasise the increased importance of the role of two critical non-state actors in international politics. The agency of Kurdistan and Palestine, and the inter-agency they have in regional, and increasingly global, political spaces is presented in a series of insightful essays, making this collection a valuable contribution to our wider understanding of the patterns of processes of international politics.” (Gareth Stansfield, Professor of Middle East Politics and Pro-Vice-Chancellor of the Faculty of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, University of Exeter, UK) 

“This book invites readers to a journey into the emerging field of paradiplomacy. It provides some valuable non-Western insights to all those interested in Kurdistan-Iraq and Palestine, and the way how these non-state entities claim to be heard and represented among the priviliged few – i.e. internationally recognised states that form international society today.” (Eiki Berg, Professor of International Relations, University of Tartu, Finland) 

“For over a century, the Kurdish and Palestinian national movements have struggled for self-determination, sovereignty, and statehood. In this highly recommended volume, editors Gülistan Gürbey, Sabine Hofmann, and Ferhad Ibrahim Seyder examine the parallels and intersections of both movements. The editors and contributors explore the contested diplomatic processes that Palestinians and Kurds have embraced as well as the challenges they continue to encounter. This volume will be an essential resource for students and scholars attempting to understand the political and diplomatic obstacles that have prevented Palestinians and Kurds from achieving their goals.” (Osamah F. Khalil, Associate Professor of History and Chair, International Relations Program, Syracuse University, New York, USA) 

“This is a well-written, informative, and provocative account of the shifting nature of statehood in the Middle East and beyond. A must-read for anyone interested in the future of the region.” (Mehmet Gurses, Professor, Department of Political Science, Florida Atlantic University, USA) 

“World politics has always entailed structured and institutionalized relations among many different kinds of actors. Yet we know little about the dynamics of interactions involving polities other than the territorial states that took shape in western Europe beginning in the sixteenth century. Building on the promising concepts of paradiplomacy and protodiplomacy, this collection offers tightly focused comparisons of the external relations of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq and the Palestinian Authority. Anyone who wishes to expand the scope of theorizing and the range of inquiry concerning contemporary international affairs will derive insight and inspiration from these well-crafted explorations.” (Fred H. Lawson, Professor of Government Emeritus, Mills College, USA, and author of Constructing International Relations in the Arab World

“This is an outstanding book that contributes to both the scholarship and practice of international relations and constitutes essential reading for anyone dealing with the Middle East. The theoretical framing is essential in advancing our knowledge of para-diplomacy and the case studies are clear, concise and informative.” (Matteo Legrenzi, Professor of International Relations, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Italy) 

“Between Diplomacy and Non-Diplomacy – which coins the term paradiplomacy to examine the foreign relations and activities Kurdistan-Iraq and Palestine – makes a huge contribution to the study of non-state actors and international relations in general. It also provides the reader with a comparative view of two of the most important de facto states in the Middle East and beyond. The book fills a critical gap in the disciple of IR and area studies.” (Fawaz A. Gerges, Professor of International Relations, London School of Economics, UK, and author of Making the Arab World)

Editors and Affiliations

  • Department of Political and Social Sciences, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany

    Gülistan Gürbey, Sabine Hofmann

  • University of Erfurt, Erfurt, Germany

    Ferhad Ibrahim Seyder

About the editors

Gülistan Gürbey is Adjunct Professor of Political Science at Freie Universität Berlin, Germany.

Sabine Hofmann is Researcher and Associate Lecturer at Freie Universität Berlin, at Philipps Universität Marburg, and at Berlin School of Economics and Law, Germany.

Ferhad Ibrahim Seyder is Professor emeritus at Freie Universität Berlin, and Universität Erfurt, Germany.

Bibliographic Information

  • Book Title: Between Diplomacy and Non-Diplomacy

  • Book Subtitle: Foreign relations of Kurdistan-Iraq and Palestine

  • Editors: Gülistan Gürbey, Sabine Hofmann, Ferhad Ibrahim Seyder

  • DOI:

  • Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan Cham

  • eBook Packages: Political Science and International Studies, Political Science and International Studies (R0)

  • Copyright Information: The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023

  • Hardcover ISBN: 978-3-031-09755-3Published: 22 April 2023

  • Softcover ISBN: 978-3-031-09758-4Published: 23 April 2024

  • eBook ISBN: 978-3-031-09756-0Published: 21 April 2023

  • Edition Number: 1

  • Number of Pages: XIX, 332

  • Topics: Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, Middle Eastern Politics

Publish with us