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  • Book
  • Open Access
  • © 2021

70 Years of Levothyroxine

  • Written by leading experts

  • Provides an excellent overview of 70 years of levothyroxine use in clinical practice

  • Discusses the effects of levothyroxine on heart, bone and in cancer

Buying options

Softcover Book USD 49.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Table of contents (10 chapters)

  1. Front Matter

    Pages i-xvii
  2. Therapeutic Use of Levothyroxine: A Historical Perspective

    • George J. Kahaly
    Pages 1-11Open Access
  3. Administration and Pharmacokinetics of Levothyroxine

    • Hans-Peter Lipp
    Pages 13-22Open Access
  4. Pharmacodynamic and Therapeutic Actions of Levothyroxine

    • James V. Hennessey
    Pages 23-45Open Access
  5. Levothyroxine in Pregnancy

    • Kris Gustave Poppe
    Pages 47-60Open Access
  6. Levothyroxine in Children

    • Gabriela Brenta
    Pages 61-73Open Access
  7. Levothyroxine in the Older Patient

    • Salman Razvi
    Pages 75-84Open Access
  8. Levothyroxine and the Heart

    • Bernadette Biondi
    Pages 85-96Open Access
  9. Levothyroxine and Bone

    • Weiping Teng
    Pages 97-107Open Access
  10. Levothyroxine and Cancer

    • Tomasz Bednarczuk
    Pages 109-120Open Access
  11. Practical Application of Levothyroxine-Based Therapy

    • Takashi Akamizu
    Pages 121-129Open Access

About this book

This open access book presents the history, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of levothyroxine, discussing its role in the thyroid pathophysiology of patients of various ages and during pregnancy. It also describes the influence of levothyroxine on heart, bone and in cancer.

When it was first synthesized in 1949, levothyroxine represented a significant advance in the treatment of hypothyroidism, providing a safe and effective treatment option for millions of hypothyroid patients around the globe. This synthetic form of thyroxine is now one of the most prescribed drugs in the world. Levothyroxine was first introduced by Merck KGaA,Darmstadt, Germany, in 1972,  and since then the company has remained actively engaged in research on this mainstay of hypothyroidism treatment.

This book is intended for healthcare professionals.


  • Thyroid gland
  • Hypothyroidism
  • TSH
  • Thyroid disorders
  • Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Open Access

Editors and Affiliations

  • Department of Medicine I, Johannes Gutenberg University (JGU) Medical Center, Mainz, Germany

    George J. Kahaly

About the editor

George J Kahaly, M.D., Ph.D. holds the rank of Professor of Medicine and Endocrinology / Metabolism at the Johannes Gutenberg University (JGU) Medical Center, Mainz, Germany. As senior physician, Dr. Kahaly directs the endocrine and thyroid autoimmunity program at the endocrine outpatient clinic and chairs the ORPHAN referral expert center for Graves’ orbitopathy and autoimmune polyendocrinopathy. 

Dr. Kahaly directs the Molecular Thyroid Research Laboratory and has authored 283 original papers and reviews, covering clinical, experimental and immune genetic aspects of endocrine autoimmunity, as well as cardiovascular involvement of metabolic disorders. Research papers and reviews have been published in the New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Jama, Annals of Internal Medicine, Clinical Chemistry, the Journal of Autoimmunity, the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, the Journal of Nuclear Medicine, Endocrinology, Thyroid, Endocrine Reviews, Nature Reviews and Autoimmunity Reviews (current citation H index 49, 9066 citations). 

Dr. Kahaly is the 2019 recipient of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists / American College of Endocrinology (AACE/ACE) Endocrinology Award. He also is the 2019 recipient of the British Thyroid Association “George Murray Award” medal. Dr. Kahaly has received several further awards: Research program of the German Endocrine Society (2006 & 2008); Poster prize, German Society of Internal Medicine (2006 & 2008); Poster prize, German Endocrine Society (2009); Investigator Award of the European Thyroid Association (2009); Investigator Award of the German Ophthalmic Society (2011); Best Reviewer Award, European Thyroid Journal (2018); and British Medical Association Medical Book Award (2018). Dr. Kahaly served 2015-2019 as Editor of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, official Organ of the American Endocrine Society. In the years 2009-2012, he was Associate Editor of the journal Thyroid, official journal of the American Thyroid Association (ATA). Dr. Kahaly is also member of the Editorial Board of the European Thyroid Journal, official journal of the European Thyroid Association (ETA). Further, he is member of the scientific program organizing committees (POC) of the 2020 international thyroid congress, ITC, Xian, China as well as of the 2020 spring meeting of the ATA. Finally, Dr. Kahaly has been recently elected Member of the Publication Core Committee of the American Endocrine Society (2020-2023). 

Dr. Kahaly served as Treasurer and principle officer of the Executive Committee of the ETA between 2007 and 2016. Since the year 2000, he also served on numerous ATA Committees (Laboratory Services Committee 2018-2022, Public Health 2015-2018, Research 2012-2015, Finance and Audit 2007-2011, as well as Membership and Publication Committees 2000-2006). Further, Dr. Kahaly is the Treasurer of the European Group on Graves’ orbitopathy. In the years 2005-2011, he was member of the Executive Committee of the German Thyroid Board.   

Bibliographic Information

  • Book Title: 70 Years of Levothyroxine

  • Editors: George J. Kahaly

  • DOI:

  • Publisher: Springer Cham

  • eBook Packages: Medicine, Medicine (R0)

  • Copyright Information: The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2021

  • License: CC BY

  • Hardcover ISBN: 978-3-030-63276-2Published: 12 March 2021

  • Softcover ISBN: 978-3-030-63279-3Published: 31 January 2022

  • eBook ISBN: 978-3-030-63277-9Published: 11 March 2021

  • Edition Number: 1

  • Number of Pages: XVII, 129

  • Number of Illustrations: 3 b/w illustrations, 34 illustrations in colour

  • Topics: Endocrinology, Pharmacology

Buying options

Softcover Book USD 49.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)