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  • Book
  • Open Access
  • © 2020

Audacious Education Purposes

How Governments Transform the Goals of Education Systems

  • Offers original and important insights on how countries change schools

  • Analyses comprehensive national education reforms in eight different countries

  • Traces the roots of current efforts to make education relevant

Buying options

Softcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

About this book

This open access book offers a comparative study of eight ambitious national reforms that sought to create opportunities for students to gain the necessary breath of skills to thrive in a rapidly changing world. It examines how national governments transform education systems to provide students opportunities to develop such skills. It analyses comprehensive education reforms in Brazil, Finland, Japan, Mexico, Peru, Poland, Portugal and Russia and yields original and important insights on the process of educational change. The analysis of these 21st century skills reforms shows that reformers followed approaches which are based on the five perspectives: cultural, psychological, professional, institutional and political. Most reforms relied on institutional and political perspectives. They highlight the systemic nature of the process of educational change, and the need for alignment and coherence among the various elements of the system in order. They underscore the importance of addressing the interests of various stakeholders of the education system in obtaining the necessary impetus to initiate and sustain change. In contrast, as the book shows, the use of a cultural and psychological frame proved rarer, missing important opportunities to draw on systematic analysis of emerging demands for schools and on cognitive science to inform the changes in the organization of instruction. Drawing on a rich array of sources and evidence the book provides a careful account of how education reform works in practice.


  • Open Access
  • transformation of public education systems
  • role of curriculum
  • Deeper Learning
  • Twenty first century skills
  • Socio-emotional development
  • education reform
  • Education Policy
  • Education Leadership
  • Systemic educational change
  • Comparative education
  • Education in Finland
  • Education in Japan
  • Education in Brazil
  • Education in Mexico
  • Education in Poland
  • Education in Russia
  • Education in Peru
  • Education in Portugal

Editors and Affiliations

  • Graduate School of Education, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA

    Fernando M. Reimers

About the editor

Fernando M. Reimers is the Ford Foundation Professor of the Practice of International Education and Director of the Global Education Innovation Initiative and of the International Education Policy Masters Program at Harvard University. An expert in the field of Global Education, his research and teaching focus on understanding how to educate children and youth so they can thrive in the 21st century. He is a member of UNESCO’s high level commission on the Futures of Education.


Bibliographic Information

  • Book Title: Audacious Education Purposes

  • Book Subtitle: How Governments Transform the Goals of Education Systems

  • Editors: Fernando M. Reimers

  • DOI:

  • Publisher: Springer Cham

  • eBook Packages: Education, Education (R0)

  • Copyright Information: The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2020

  • License: CC BY

  • Hardcover ISBN: 978-3-030-41881-6Published: 24 April 2020

  • Softcover ISBN: 978-3-030-41884-7Published: 18 September 2020

  • eBook ISBN: 978-3-030-41882-3Published: 23 April 2020

  • Edition Number: 1

  • Number of Pages: X, 250

  • Number of Illustrations: 18 b/w illustrations

  • Topics: International and Comparative Education, Educational Policy and Politics, Curriculum Studies, Organization and Leadership

Buying options

Softcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)