This handbook presents global research on health expectancies, a measure of population health that examines the interaction between quantity and quality of life. With data from Europe, North America, Asia, and beyond, it explains how to define and measure health and morbidity and how to integrate these measurements with mortality. Coverage first highlights long-term trends in longevity and health. It also considers variations across and within countries, inequalities, and social gaps as well as micro and macro-level determinants. Next, the handbook deals with the methodological aspects of calculating health expectancies. It compares results from different methods and introduces tools, such as decomposition tool for decomposing gaps, an attrition tool for attributing a medical cause to reported disability, and a tool for measuring policy impact on health expectancies. It introduces methods of forecasting health expectancies. The handbook then goes on to examine the synergies and/or trade-off between longevity and health as well as considers such topics as the compression versus the expansion of morbidity/disability and the health-survival paradox. The last section considers new concepts and dimensions of health and, more broadly, well being which can be used in summary measures of population health, including psychological factors. Researchers, clinicians, demographers, and health planners will find this handbook an essential resource to this increasingly important public health and social policy tool. It will help readers gain insight into changes in health over time as well as inequalities between countries, regions, and population subgroups.