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Palgrave Macmillan

Future Studies and Counterfactual Analysis

Seeds of the Future

  • Book
  • © 2019


  • Builds on previous futures research by considering possible outcomes of current global anxieties
  • Weaves careful description of current issues and historical events with hypothetical future scenarios to provide engaging, thoughtful analysis
  • Engages with timely topics, such as truth and the role of technology

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Table of contents (14 chapters)


About this book

In this volume, the authors contribute to futures research by placing the counterfactual question in the future tense. They explore the possible outcomes of future, and consider how future decisions are turning points that may produce different global outcomes. This book focuses on a dozen or so intractable issues that span politics, religion, and technology, each addressed in individual chapters. Until now, most scenarios written by futurists have been built on cause and effect narratives or depended on numerical models derived from historical relationships. In contrast, many of the scenarios written for this book are point descriptions of future discontinuities, a form allows more thought-provoking presentations. Ultimately, this book demonstrates that counterfactual thinking and point scenarios of discontinuities are new, groundbreaking tools for futurists.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Millennium Project, Old Lyme, USA

    Theodore J. Gordon

  • Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria

    Mariana Todorova

About the authors

Mr. Theodore J. Gordon, co-founder of the Millennium Project, the Institute for the Future, and the Futures Group, Inc., is a well- known futurist and senior author of this book. He has authored many books and professional papers, and in past years was Chief Engineer for the Apollo 3rd Stage lunar rocket.

Dr. Mariana Todorova, PhD is a researcher at Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and has been a Member of the Bulgarian Parliament. Todorova is a Chair of Millennium project Bulgarian node. She is building a new methodology of forecasting based on counterfactual analysis. She is an analyst, futurist, strategist, and trend tracker.

Bibliographic Information

  • Book Title: Future Studies and Counterfactual Analysis

  • Book Subtitle: Seeds of the Future

  • Authors: Theodore J. Gordon, Mariana Todorova

  • DOI:

  • Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan Cham

  • eBook Packages: Social Sciences, Social Sciences (R0)

  • Copyright Information: The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

  • Hardcover ISBN: 978-3-030-18436-0Published: 28 June 2019

  • Softcover ISBN: 978-3-030-18439-1Published: 14 August 2020

  • eBook ISBN: 978-3-030-18437-7Published: 14 June 2019

  • Edition Number: 1

  • Number of Pages: XII, 194

  • Number of Illustrations: 1 b/w illustrations

  • Topics: Science and Technology Studies, Artificial Intelligence, Innovation/Technology Management

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