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  • © 2019

Understanding the Impacts of Deregulation in Planning

Turning Offices into Homes?

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  • Examines through detailed case studies the implications of making office-to-residential conversion permitted development in England

  • Develops existing work on this deregulatory reform using original research data

  • Argues that this example of the broader neoliberal trend for planning deregulation has led to generally lower standards and worse public finances

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  • ISBN: 978-3-030-12672-8
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Table of contents (12 chapters)

  1. Front Matter

    Pages i-xviii
  2. The Rise and Rise of Permitted Development in England

    • Ben Clifford, Jessica Ferm, Nicola Livingstone, Patricia Canelas
    Pages 1-11
  3. Deregulation, Neoliberalism and the Planning System

    • Ben Clifford, Jessica Ferm, Nicola Livingstone, Patricia Canelas
    Pages 13-22
  4. The Planning Context for Office-to-Residential Change of Use

    • Ben Clifford, Jessica Ferm, Nicola Livingstone, Patricia Canelas
    Pages 23-33
  5. Understanding Office-to-Residential Permitted Development

    • Ben Clifford, Jessica Ferm, Nicola Livingstone, Patricia Canelas
    Pages 35-45
  6. Overview of Office-to-Residential Conversion in England and Our Case Studies

    • Ben Clifford, Jessica Ferm, Nicola Livingstone, Patricia Canelas
    Pages 47-60
  7. The Camden Story: Threatening the Creative Economy?

    • Ben Clifford, Jessica Ferm, Nicola Livingstone, Patricia Canelas
    Pages 61-81
  8. The Croydon Story: Slums of the Future?

    • Ben Clifford, Jessica Ferm, Nicola Livingstone, Patricia Canelas
    Pages 83-110
  9. The Leeds Story: City Centre Students and Industrial Estate Living

    • Ben Clifford, Jessica Ferm, Nicola Livingstone, Patricia Canelas
    Pages 111-132
  10. The Leicester Story: Positive Reuse or Threatening an Emerging Private Rental Sector?

    • Ben Clifford, Jessica Ferm, Nicola Livingstone, Patricia Canelas
    Pages 133-155
  11. The Reading Story: Loss of Affordable Housing in the Vibrant South East?

    • Ben Clifford, Jessica Ferm, Nicola Livingstone, Patricia Canelas
    Pages 157-176
  12. Alternative Approaches to Governing Change of Use: Scotland and The Netherlands

    • Ben Clifford, Jessica Ferm, Nicola Livingstone, Patricia Canelas
    Pages 177-199
  13. Conclusions and Implications for Future Practice

    • Ben Clifford, Jessica Ferm, Nicola Livingstone, Patricia Canelas
    Pages 201-215
  14. Back Matter

    Pages 217-225

About this book

In England, it has been possible since 2013 to convert an office building into residential use without needing planning permission (as has been required since 1948). This book explores the consequences of this central government driven deregulation on local communities. The policy decision was primarily about boosting the supply of housing, but reflects a broader neoliberal ideology which seeks to reform public planning in many countries to reduce perceived interference in free markets. Drawing on original research in the English local authorities of Camden, Croydon, Leeds, Leicester and Reading, the book provides a case study of the implementation of planning deregulation which demonstrates the lowering of standards in housing quality, the reduced ability of the local state to proactively steer development and plan for their places, and the transfer of wealth from the public to private spheres that has resulted. Comparative case studies from Glasgow and Rotterdam call into question the very need for the deregulation in the first place.
 
Ben Clifford is Senior Lecturer in Planning at the Bartlett School of Planning, UCL, UK. Ben’s research focusses on the relationship between planning reform and the modernisation of the state in the UK and he was lead author for the book The Collaborating Planner?
 
Patricia Canelas is an architect and urban planner. Prior to her academic work, Patricia worked in practice. She is currently a researcher at ISCTE-IUL, Lisbon, Portugal. Her research interests span the themes of urban governance, property markets and place-making.
 
Jessica Ferm is Lecturer in Planning at the Bartlett School of Planning, UCL, UK. Her research focuses on the intersection of spatial planning with the economy and she has published on planning for workspace and industry. Having worked in practice, she is co-editor of the book Planning Practice.
 
Nicola Livingstone is Lecturer in Real Estate at the Bartlett School of Planning, UCL, UK. Her research interests include real estate investment, the evolution of the retail market, food insecurity and interpreting the social form of the built environment.

Keywords

  • permitted development
  • England
  • deregulation
  • change of use
  • conversion
  • Coalition government
  • Neoliberalism
  • regulatory capitalism
  • the state
  • the market
  • planning
  • prior approval
  • Article 4 direction
  • Use Class Order
  • Office-to-residential
  • affordable housing
  • space standards
  • office markets
  • planning gain
  • Housing data

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bartlett School of Planning, University College London, London, UK

    Ben Clifford, Jessica Ferm, Nicola Livingstone, Patricia Canelas

About the authors

Ben Clifford is Senior Lecturer in Planning at the Bartlett School of Planning, UCL, UK. Ben’s research focusses on the relationship between planning reform and the modernisation of the state in the UK and he was lead author for the book The Collaborating Planner?
 
Patricia Canelas is an architect and urban planner. Prior to her academic work, Patricia worked in practice. She is currently a researcher at ISCTE-IUL, Lisbon, Portugal. Her research interests span the themes of urban governance, property markets and place-making.
 
Jessica Ferm is Lecturer in Planning at the Bartlett School of Planning, UCL, UK. Her research focuses on the intersection of spatial planning with the economy and she has published on planning for workspace and industry. Having worked in practice, she is co-editor of the book Planning Practice.
 
Nicola Livingstone is Lecturer in Real Estate at the Bartlett School of Planning, UCL, UK. Her research interests include real estate investment, the evolution of the retail market, food insecurity and interpreting the social form of the built environment.

Bibliographic Information

Buying options

eBook
USD 44.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-12672-8
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)