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  • © 2019

Springer Handbook of Science and Technology Indicators

  • Includes state-of-the-art descriptions of the wide variety of indicators and methods used for research and innovation assessment

  • Represents a timely and up-to-date reference, taking into account recent technological developments and their impact on the field of science and technology studies

  • Offers an invaluable resource for practitioners, scientists and policy makers alike

  • Includes supplementary material:

Part of the book series: Springer Handbooks (SHB)

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Table of contents (44 chapters)

  1. Front Matter

    Pages I-XXXVIII
  2. Analysis of Data Sources and Network Analysis

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 1-2
    2. Bibliometric Delineation of Scientific Fields

      • Michel Zitt, Alain Lelu, Martine Cadot, Guillaume Cabanac
      Pages 25-68
    3. Knowledge Integration: Its Meaning and Measurement

      • Ronald Rousseau, Lin Zhang, Xiaojun Hu
      Pages 69-94
    4. Google Scholar as a Data Source for Research Assessment

      • Emilio Delgado López-Cózar, Enrique Orduña-Malea, Alberto Martín-Martín
      Pages 95-127
    5. Disentangling Gold Open Access

      • Daniel Torres-Salinas, Nicolas Robinson-García, Henk F. Moed
      Pages 129-144
    6. Science Mapping Analysis Software Tools: A Review

      • Jose A. Moral-Munoz, Antonio G. López-Herrera, Enrique Herrera-Viedma, Manuel J. Cobo
      Pages 159-185
    7. Creation and Analysis of Large-Scale Bibliometric Networks

      • Kevin W. Boyack, Richard Klavans
      Pages 187-212
  3. Advancement of Methodology for Research Assessment

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 235-236
    2. Field Normalization of Scientometric Indicators

      • Ludo Waltman, Nees Jan van Eck
      Pages 281-300
    3. All Along the h-Index-related Literature: A Guided Tour

      • András Schubert, Gábor Schubert
      Pages 301-334
    4. Citation Classes: A Distribution-based Approach for Evaluative Purposes

      • Wolfgang Glänzel, Bart Thijs, Koenraad Debackere
      Pages 335-360
    5. Synergy in Innovation Systems Measured as Redundancy in Triple Helix Relations

      • Loet Leydesdorff, Inga Ivanova, Martin Meyer
      Pages 421-443
  4. Science Systems and Research Policy

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 445-446

About this book

This handbook presents the state of the art of quantitative methods and models to understand and assess the science and technology system. Focusing on various aspects of the development and application of indicators derived from data on scholarly publications, patents and electronic communications, the individual chapters, written by leading experts, discuss theoretical and methodological issues, illustrate applications, highlight their policy context and relevance, and point to future research directions.

A substantial portion of the book is dedicated to detailed descriptions and analyses of data sources, presenting both traditional and advanced approaches. It addresses the main bibliographic metrics and indexes, such as the journal impact factor and the h-index, as well as altmetric and webometric indicators and science mapping techniques on different levels of aggregation and in the context of their value for the assessment of research performance as well as their impact on research policy and society. It also presents and critically discusses various national research evaluation systems.

Complementing the sections reflecting on the science system, the technology section includes multiple chapters that explain different aspects of patent statistics, patent classification and database search methods to retrieve patent-related information. In addition, it examines the relevance of trademarks and standards as additional technological indicators.

The Springer Handbook of Science and Technology Indicators is an invaluable resource for practitioners, scientists and policy makers wanting a systematic and thorough analysis of the potential and limitations of the various approaches to assess research and research performance.


  • Scientometrics
  • Bibliometircs
  • patent analysis
  • Altmetrics
  • Research Assessment
  • Scientometric indicators
  • science indicators
  • Network analysis
  • Science mapping
  • Citation analysis
  • Impact factor
  • bibliometric indicators
  • informetrics
  • webometrics
  • patent classification systems
  • web-based indicators
  • social media metrics
  • research ethics

Editors and Affiliations

  • ECOOM and Faculty of Economics and Business, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

    Wolfgang Glänzel

  • Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    Henk F. Moed

  • Competence Center Policy – Industry – Innovation, Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe, Germany

    Ulrich Schmoch

  • Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK

    Mike Thelwall

About the editors

Wolfgang Glänzel is Director of the Centre for R&D Monitoring (ECOOM) and full Professor at KU Leuven, Belgium. He worked in several bibliometric projects above all for the European Commission and several governments. Wolfgang Glänzel is Editor-in-Chief of the international journal Scientometrics, Academic Editor of the journal PLoS One and Secretary-Treasurer of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics (ISSI). He has published in probability theory and mathematical statistics, computer science and various topics in quantitative science studies, scientometrics and informetrics. His main topics of research are the development and application of bibliometric indicators to various levels of aggregation, detection and analysis of cognitive structures of scientific research, subject delineation and classification and mathematical models for the processes of scholarly communication. In 1999 he received the international Derek deSolla Price Award for outstanding contributions to the quantitative studies of science. 

Henk F. Moed was a senior staff member and a full professor of research assessment methodologies at the Centre for Science and Technology Studies (CWTS) at Leiden University, The Netherlands, between 1981 and 2010. He obtained a Ph.D. degree in Science Studies at the University of Leiden in 1989. He has been active in numerous research areas, including the creation of bibliometric databases from raw data from Thomson Scientific’s Web of Science and Elsevier’s Scopus, analysis of inaccuracies in citation matching, assessment of the potentialities and pitfalls of journal impact factors, the development and application of science indicators for the measurement of research performance, multi-dimensional assessment of research impact and the potential of altmetrics. He is currently an independent scientific advisor, and visiting professor at the Sapienza University of Rome. 

Ulrich Schmoch obtained a diploma in mechanical engineering in 1977 and a Ph.D. degree in social sciences in 1983. Between 1983 and 1985 he worked at the office of a patent attorney. Since 1986, he is at the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe, Germany, and held the position of deputy head of department and head of department for many years. He was visiting fellow at the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, in 2011, and was delegated to the University of Speyer, Germany, as head of a study course on science management between 2012 and 2014. At Fraunhofer, he conducted several dozens of research projects on behalf of diverse national governments, the European Commission, the OECD, the WIPO, various foundations and enterprises. His special research areas are all kinds of innovation indicators and their combination, in particular patent, publication, trade mark, foreign trade and production indicators. 

Mike Thelwall is Professor of Information Science and leader of the Statistical Cybermetrics Research Group at the University of Wolverhampton, UK, which he joined in 1989. His PhD was in Pure Mathematics from the University of Lancaster. His current research field includes identifying and analysing web phenomena using quantitative-led research methods, primarily link analysis and sentiment analysis, and has pioneered an information science approach to link analysis. Mike has developed a wide range of tools for gathering and analysing web data, including hyperlink analysis, sentiment analysis and content analysis for Twitter, YouTube, MySpace, blogs and the web in general. He was a member of the UK’s independent review of the role of metrics in research assessment (2014-15) and is a member of the UK Forum for Responsible Research Metrics.

Bibliographic Information

Buy it now

Buying options

eBook USD 299.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book USD 379.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Other ways to access