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Use of Biomarkers in Assessing Health and Environmental Impacts of Chemical Pollutants

  • Curtis C. Travis

Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 250)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xi
  2. Molecular Dosimetry

  3. Dose-Response Relationships for Mutagenic and Carcinogenic Action of Genotoxic Agents

  4. Biomarkers of Environmental Exposure

  5. Biomarkers of Toxicity

    1. Peter L. Goering, Benjamin R. Fisher, Carole A. Kimmel, Gary L. Kimmel
      Pages 95-99
    2. Orhan S. Şardaş, Semra Şardaş, Oktay Sancaktar
      Pages 101-104
  6. Biological Markers in Reproductive Toxicology

  7. Biomarkers of Neurotoxicity

    1. Loren D. Koller
      Pages 201-207
    2. Eric Pluygers, Paul Gourdin, Guy Dardenne, Brigitte Scoubeau, Alex Parfonry
      Pages 209-226
    3. John S. Reif, Howard S. Ramsdell, Nancy M. DuTeau, W. Kent Anger, Theodora A. Tsongas
      Pages 227-235
  8. Ecological Biomarkers

  9. Tumor Markers

    1. Ibrahim Gullu, Suayip Yalcin, Gulten Tekuzman, Ayse Kars, Esmen Baltali, Nilufer Guler et al.
      Pages 265-271
    2. Ozgur Ozyilkan, Esmen Baltali, Ayse Kars, Gulten Tekuzman, Dincer Firat
      Pages 273-278
  10. Back Matter
    Pages 279-284

About this book

Introduction

Biological markers (biomarkers) are useful tools for understanding the nature and extent of human exposure and risk from environmental toxicants. Biomarkers are classified into three basic categories: exposure, effect, or susceptibility. A marker of exposure is the product of the interaction between a target cell or molecule and a foreign substance (NAS, 1989). These markers can be used to determine the biologically effective dose necessary to elicit a particular physiological change in an organism. A marker of effect is a biochemical or physiological change in an organism that can predict the onset of adverse health effects resulting from a given exposure. Lastly, markers of susceptibility act as indicators of an inherent or acquired tendency of an organism to experience an adverse health effect (NAS, 1989). These markers are already used to detect a variety of diseases and show great promise for developing a better understanding of the mechanicisms of disease. Additionally, biomarkers can be used to establish a more rational basis for quantitative risk extrapolation between species, as weIl as to obtain more precise estimates of the time of critical exposure. These markers can also prove helpful in identifying potentially damaging exposures before the onset of adverse health effects. Biomarkers serve as a valuable exposure assessment tool because they take into account exposure from all routes and integrate exposure from all sources. They have the potential to yield better risk estimates than current monitoring and modeling protocols. In lune 1992, Dr. Travis and Dr.

Keywords

Mutation ecosystems production toxicity toxicology

Editors and affiliations

  • Curtis C. Travis
    • 1
  1. 1.Oak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA

Bibliographic information