Table of contents
Ions and Membrane Surfaces
About this book
Although there is general agreement that exogenous electric and electromagnetic fields influence and modulate the properties of biological systems. there is no concensus regarding the mechanisms by which such fields operate. It is the purpose of this volume to bring together and examine critically the mechanistic models and concepts that have been proposed. We have chosen to arrange the papers in terms of the level of biological organization emphasized by the contributors. Some papers overlap categories. but the progression from ions and membrane surfaces. through macromolecules and the membrane matrix to integrated systems. establishes a mechanistic chain of causality that links the basic interactions in the relatively well understood simple systems to the complex living systems. where all effects occur simultaneously. The backgrounds of the invited contributors include biochemistry. biophysics. cell biology. electrical engineering. electrochemistry. electrophysiology. medicine and physical chemistry. As a result of this diversity. the mechanistic models reflect the differing approaches used by these disciplines to explain the same phenomena. Areas of agreement define the common ground. while the areas of divergence provide opportunities for refining our ideas through further experimentation. To facilitate the interaction between the different points of view, the authors have clearly indicated those published observations that they are trying to explain. i.e. the experiments that have been critical in their thinking. This should establish a concensus regarding important observations. In the discussion of theories.
Biomembran blood cell electromagnetic electromagnetic fields enzymes living systems magnetic fields