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  • Book
  • Open Access
  • © 2021

Ray Tracing Gems II

Next Generation Real-Time Rendering with DXR, Vulkan, and OptiX

  • Explore the capabilities of the latest graphics hardware and APIs

  • Review a comprehensive collection of ideas, tips, and best practices for real-time ray tracing applications

  • Learn about real-time ray tracing, hybrid rendering, denoising & filtering, global illumination, and more

  • With advice from graphics experts at NVIDIA and top game developers in the game industry

Buying options

Softcover Book USD 49.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Table of contents (50 chapters)

  1. Front Matter

    Pages i-lvi
  2. Ray Tracing Foundations

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 2-7
    2. Ray Axis-Aligned Bounding Box Intersection

      • Peter Shirley, Ingo Wald, Adam Marrs
      Pages 37-39
    3. Essential Ray Generation Shaders

      • Morgan McGuire, Zander Majercik
      Pages 41-64
    4. Hacking the Shadow Terminator

      • Johannes Hanika
      Pages 65-76
    5. Sampling Textures with Missing Derivatives

      • Maksim Aizenshtein, Matt Pharr
      Pages 77-88
    6. Differential Barycentric Coordinates

      • Tomas Akenine-Möller
      Pages 89-94
    7. Reflection and Refraction Formulas

      • Eric Haines
      Pages 105-108
    8. The Schlick Fresnel Approximation

      • Zander Majercik
      Pages 109-114
    9. Refraction Ray Cones for Texture Level of Detail

      • Jakub Boksansky, Cyril Crassin, Tomas Akenine-Möller
      Pages 115-125
    10. Handling Translucency with Real-Time Ray Tracing

      • Tianyi “Tanki” Zhang
      Pages 127-138
    11. Motion Blur Corner Cases

      • Christopher Kulla, Thiago Ize
      Pages 139-151
    12. The Reference Path Tracer

      • Jakub Boksansky, Adam Marrs
      Pages 161-187
  3. APIs and Tools

    1. Front Matter

      Pages 188-192
    2. The Shader Binding Table Demystified

      • Will Usher
      Pages 193-211
    3. Introduction to Vulkan Ray Tracing

      • Matthew Rusch, Neil Bickford, Nuno Subtil
      Pages 213-255

About this book

This Open Access book is a must-have for anyone interested in real-time rendering. Ray tracing is the holy grail of gaming graphics, simulating the physical behavior of light to bring real-time, cinematic-quality rendering to even the most visually intense games. Ray tracing is also a fundamental algorithm used for architecture applications, visualization, sound simulation, deep learning, and more.

Ray Tracing Gems II is written by industry experts with a particular focus on ray tracing, and it offers a practical means to master the new capabilities of current and future GPUs with the latest graphics APIs.

What You'll Learn:
  • The latest ray tracing techniques for developing real-time applications in multiple domains
  • Case studies from developers and studios who have shipped products that use real-time ray tracing.
  • Guidance, advice and best practices for rendering applications with various GPU-based ray tracing APIs (DirectX Raytracing, Vulkan Ray Tracing)
  • High performance graphics for 3D graphics, virtual reality, animation, and more

Who This Book Is For:
Game and graphics developers who are looking to leverage the latest hardware and software tools for real-time rendering and ray tracing to enhance their applications across a variety of disciplines.


  • Computer Graphics
  • Real-Time Rendering
  • Ray Tracing
  • Path Tracing
  • GPU
  • DirectX Raytracing
  • Vulkan Ray Tracing
  • BVH and Acceleration Structures
  • Rasterization
  • Game development
  • Open Access

Editors and Affiliations

  • Apex, USA

    Adam Marrs

  • Salt Lake City, USA

    Peter Shirley, Ingo Wald

About the editors

Adam Marrs is a Senior Graphics Engineer in the Game Engines and Core Technology group at NVIDIA. He holds a PhD in computer science, has conducted graphics research in academia and industry, published at HPG, Eurographics, JCGT, and wrote for the GPU Zen 2 and Ray Tracing Gems books. He has shipped graphics code in AAA game titles and commercial game engines.

Peter Shirley is a Distinguished Engineer in the Research group at NVIDIA. He holds a PhD in computer science and has worked in academics, startup companies, and industry. He is the author of several books including the recent Ray Tracing in One Weekend series.

Ingo Wald is a Director, Ray Tracing, at NVIDIA. He holds a PhD in computer science, has a long history of ray tracing related research in both academia and industry, and is probably best known for authoring and co-authoring various papers and open-source software project related to rendering, visualization, data structures, and other topics that in one or another form usually involve ray tracing.

Bibliographic Information

  • Book Title: Ray Tracing Gems II

  • Book Subtitle: Next Generation Real-Time Rendering with DXR, Vulkan, and OptiX

  • Editors: Adam Marrs, Peter Shirley, Ingo Wald

  • DOI:

  • Publisher: Apress Berkeley, CA

  • eBook Packages: Professional and Applied Computing, Professional and Applied Computing (R0), Apress Access Books

  • Copyright Information: NVIDIA 2021

  • License: CC BY-NC-ND

  • Hardcover ISBN: 978-1-4842-7184-1Published: 26 August 2021

  • Softcover ISBN: 978-1-4842-7187-2Published: 23 August 2021

  • eBook ISBN: 978-1-4842-7185-8Published: 04 August 2021

  • Edition Number: 1

  • Number of Pages: LVI, 858

  • Number of Illustrations: 876 illustrations in colour

  • Topics: Computer Graphics, Game Development

Buying options

Softcover Book USD 49.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)