About this book
- A hypothesis is a proposition, set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of a phenomenon, that can be tested. - The basis for scientific investigation is the collection of information to formulate and test hypotheses. - Experimental methods measure the effect of manipulations caused by the investigator; observational methods collect information about naturally occurring events. - There are three sub-types of experimental techniques that differ in the way subjects are chosen for inclusion in the study, in the amount of control that the investigator has over variables, and in the method used to assess changes in other variables. - Descriptive observational studies dominate the early phase of most investigations and involve the description of disease-related events in the population. Associations among factors may be observed but the strength of the associations is not measured. - Analytical observation al techniques are of three basic types: prevalence surveys, case:control studies, and incidence or cohort studies. All attempt to explain the nature of relationships among various factors and to measure the strength of associations. - Prevalence surveys and case:control studies deal with disease existing at the time of the study; incidence studies are concerned with the development of disease over time. - Observational studies may be retrospective, using existing data, or prospective with collection of new information.
animals environment epidemiology