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Anthropometry and Biomechanics

Theory and Application

  • Ronald Easterby
  • K. H. E. Kroemer
  • Don B. Chaffin

Part of the Nato Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 16)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-x
  2. Opening Address

  3. Data Acquisition Methods

  4. Anthropometric Data Bases

  5. Models of Anthropometric Data

  6. Maximum Voluntary Exertion Data

  7. Models of Biomechanical Data

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 167-167
    2. Gunnar B. J. Andersson, Albert B. Schultz, Roland Örtengren, Alf L. Nachemson
      Pages 179-182
    3. Richard H. Shannon
      Pages 193-201
  8. Applications I

  9. Applications II

  10. Future Needs and Perspectives

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 299-299
    2. E. N. Corlett
      Pages 301-308
    3. Jerry L. Purswell, Don B. Chaffin
      Pages 309-317
  11. Back Matter
    Pages 325-327

About this book

Introduction

Assessment of the physical dimensions of the human body and application of this knowledge to the design of tools, equip­ ment, and work are certainly among the oldest arts and sciences. It would be an easy task if all anthropometric dimensions, of all people, would follow a general rule. Thus, philosophers and artists embedded their ideas about the most aesthetic proportions into ideal schemes of perfect proportions. "Golden sections" were developed in ancient India, China, Egypt, and Greece, and more recently by Leonardo DaVinci, or Albrecht Durer. However, such canons are fictive since actual human dimensions and proportions vary greatly among individuals. The different physical appearances often have been associated with mental, physiological and behavioral characteristics of the individuals. Hypocrates (about 460-377 BC) taught that there are four temperaments (actually, body fluids) represented by four body types. The psychiatrist Ernst Kretchmer (1888-1964) proposed that three typical somatotypes (pyknic, athletic, aesthenic) could reflect human character traits. Since the 1940's, W. H. Sheldon and his coworkers devised a system of three body physiques (endo-, meso-, ectomorphic). The classification was originally qualitative, and only recently has been developed to include actual measurements.

Keywords

assessment biomechanics classification evaluation mechanics population rehabilitation

Editors and affiliations

  • Ronald Easterby
    • 1
  • K. H. E. Kroemer
    • 2
  • Don B. Chaffin
    • 3
  1. 1.University of AstonBirminghamEngland
  2. 2.Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburgUSA
  3. 3.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Bibliographic information