Surgical Approaches to the Spine

  • Robert G. Watkins

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xi
  2. Robert G. Watkins
    Pages 1-6
  3. Robert G. Watkins
    Pages 7-11
  4. Robert G. Watkins
    Pages 12-19
  5. Robert G. Watkins
    Pages 39-42
  6. Robert G. Watkins
    Pages 43-49
  7. Robert G. Watkins
    Pages 50-56
  8. Robert G. Watkins
    Pages 57-57
  9. Robert G. Watkins
    Pages 69-79
  10. Robert G. Watkins
    Pages 80-82
  11. Robert G. Watkins
    Pages 83-88
  12. Robert G. Watkins
    Pages 89-95
  13. Robert G. Watkins
    Pages 96-100
  14. Robert G. Watkins
    Pages 112-116

About this book


The desire to expose the spine for surgery by anterior approaches at any level between the head and the sacrum is not new. Spinal pathology is often located anterior to the spinal cord and nerve roots in the cervical and thoracic spine, and anterior to the peripheral nerves that emerge from the lumbosacral spine below the first lumbar ver­ tebra. To treat such pathology one prefers to expose the front of the spine directly and widely enough to eradicate the pathology and to have full control of bleeding throughout the procedure. The posterior elements of the spine are important for mechanical stability of the spine, and therefore for the protection of the neural and vascular structures in the spine that would be threatened by instability. Extensive eradication of pathology posterior to the spinal canal and the intervertebral foraminae, including the transverse processes, may leave no adequate bony bed for the surgical creation of a stabilizing osseous fusion. In such a situation, an anterior fusion procedure is the only viable alternative to a posterior or posterolateral fusion. In situations where it is critically important to obtain a stable fusion, as in tuberculosis of the spine, both an anterior and a posterior fusion operation at the same motion segments is, in almost every instance, a guarantee of a stable osseous fusion. One should know both approaches.


Wirbelsäulenchirurgie head instability spinal cord spinal surgery spine spine surgery surgery

Authors and affiliations

  • Robert G. Watkins
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Southwestern Orthopaedic Medical Group, Inc.Centinela Hospital Medical CenterInglewoodUSA
  2. 2.Department of Orthopedic SurgeryUniversity of Southern CaliforniaUSA
  3. 3.Spinal Disorders ServiceLos Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical CenterUSA
  4. 4.Spinal Cord Injury ServiceRancho Los Amigos HospitalDowneyUSA
  5. 5.Southern California Regional Spinal Cord Injury CenterUSA

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer-Verlag New York 1983
  • Publisher Name Springer, New York, NY
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-1-4684-0157-8
  • Online ISBN 978-1-4684-0155-4
  • About this book