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A New Reference Grammar of Modern Spanish

  • Authors
  • John Butt
  • Carmen Benjamin

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xiv
  2. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 1-16
  3. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 17-28
  4. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 29-50
  5. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 51-72
  6. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 73-82
  7. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 83-88
  8. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 89-93
  9. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 94-100
  10. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 101-113
  11. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 114-122
  12. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 123-142
  13. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 143-155
  14. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 156-206
  15. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 207-229
  16. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 230-236
  17. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 237-272
  18. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 273-280
  19. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 281-291
  20. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 292-297
  21. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 298-306
  22. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 307-311
  23. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 312-318
  24. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 319-328
  25. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 329-334
  26. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 335-340
  27. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 341-357
  28. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 358-361
  29. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 362-374
  30. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 375-381
  31. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 382-384
  32. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 385-400
  33. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 401-408
  34. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 409-418
  35. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 419-447
  36. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 448-457
  37. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 458-463
  38. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 464-475
  39. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 476-482
  40. John Butt, Carmen Benjamin
    Pages 483-498
  41. Back Matter
    Pages 499-520

About this book

Introduction

(abridged and revised) This reference grammar offers intermediate and advanced students a reason­ ably comprehensive guide to the morphology and syntax of educated speech and plain prose in Spain and Latin America at the end of the twentieth century. Spanish is the main, usually the sole official language of twenty-one countries,} and it is set fair to overtake English by the year 2000 in numbers 2 of native speakers. This vast geographical and political diversity ensures that Spanish is a good deal less unified than French, German or even English, the latter more or less internationally standardized according to either American or British norms. Until the 1960s, the criteria of internationally correct Spanish were dictated by the Real Academia Espanola, but the prestige of this institution has now sunk so low that its most solemn decrees are hardly taken seriously - witness the fate of the spelling reforms listed in the Nuevas normas de prosodia y ortograjia, which were supposed to come into force in all Spanish-speaking countries in 1959 and, nearly forty years later, are still selectively ignored by publishers and literate persons everywhere. The fact is that in Spanish 'correctness' is nowadays decided, as it is in all living languages, by the consensus of native speakers; but consensus about linguistic usage is obviously difficult to achieve between more than twenty independent, widely scattered and sometimes mutually hostile countries. Peninsular Spanish is itself in flux.

Keywords

English Negation conditional conjunctions gerund grammar infinitive nouns passive personal pronouns plural pronominal pronouns spelling suffixes

Bibliographic information