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Short-Term Bioassays in the Analysis of Complex Environmental Mixtures III

  • Michael D. Waters
  • Shahbeg S. Sandhu
  • Joellen Lewtas
  • Larry Claxton
  • Neil Chernoff
  • Stephen Nesnow

Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 27)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xv
  2. Collection and Preparation of Environmental Samples for Bioassays

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Ulf Rannug, Annica Sundvall, Roger Westerholm, Tomas Alsberg, Ulf Stenberg
      Pages 3-16
    3. Raymond G. Merrill Jr., Joellen Lewtas, Robert E. Hall
      Pages 17-26
    4. Kenneth M. Duke, David J. Bean
      Pages 27-38
    5. Resha M. Putzrath, Eric Eisenstadt
      Pages 79-87
  3. Application of Bioassays to the Characterization of Complex Mixtures

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 101-101
    2. Herbert S. Rosenkranz, Elena C. McCoy, Robert Mermelstein
      Pages 103-138
    3. Gary F. Strniste, Judy M. Bingham, W. Dale Spall, Joyce W. Nickols, Richard T. Okinaka, David J.-C. Chen
      Pages 139-151
  4. Development of Short-Term Bioassays: Mutagenicity and Cytotoxicity

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 163-163
    2. A. P. Li, A. L. Brooks, C. R. Clark, R. W. Shimizu, R. L. Hanson, J. S. Dutcher
      Pages 183-196
    3. Joan Smith-Sonneborn, Elizabeth A. McCann, Ronald A. Palizzi
      Pages 197-210
    4. Lloyd A. Schairer, Richard C. Sautkulis, Neal R. Tempel
      Pages 211-228
    5. J. H. Carver, A. D. Mitchell, M. D. Waters
      Pages 229-244
    6. James S. Felton, R. Lowry Dobson
      Pages 245-255
    7. D. J. Chen, L. L. Deaven, J. Meyne, R. T. Okinaka, G. F. Strniste
      Pages 269-275
    8. Leonard J. Schiff, Susan F. Elliott, Steven J. Moore, Mary S. Urcan, Judith A. Graham
      Pages 277-284
    9. Rita Schoeny, David Warshawsky
      Pages 285-295
  5. Development of Short-Term Bioassays: Carcinogenicity

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 307-307
    2. J. Carl Barrett, Thomas E. Gray, Marc J. Mass, David G. Thomassen
      Pages 325-340
    3. R. R. Maronpot, H. P. Witschi, L. H. Smith, J. L. McCoy
      Pages 341-349
    4. Philip S. Thayer, Judith C. Harris, Kenneth T. Menzies, Richard W. Niemeier
      Pages 351-366
    5. S. Nesnow, L. L. Triplett, T. J. Slaga
      Pages 367-390
  6. Development of Short-Term Bioassays: Teratology

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 391-391
    2. James N. Dumont, T. Wayne Schultz, Michelle V. Buchanan, Glen L. Kao
      Pages 393-405
    3. Norman W. Klein, Clare L. Chatot, John D. Plenefisch, Sean W. Carey
      Pages 407-415
  7. Integrated Assessment

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 429-429
    2. George R. Douglas, Earle R. Nestmann, A. B. McKague, O. P. Kamra, E. G.-H. Lee, J. A. Ellenton et al.
      Pages 431-459
    3. Jonathan B. Ward Jr., Marvin S. Legator, Michael A. Pereira, Lina W. Chang
      Pages 461-484
    4. Hélène M. Coulomb, Yves A. Courtois, Françoise Boizard Callais, Bernard Festy, Ivan Chouroulinkov
      Pages 485-497
    5. C. S. Dudney, P. J. Walsh, T. D. Jones, E. E. Calle, G. D. Griffin
      Pages 499-513
    6. Yoshinari Ohnishi, Takemi Kinouchi, Yoshiki Manabe, Kazumi Wakisaka
      Pages 527-539
  8. Back Matter
    Pages 569-589

About this book

Introduction

In the four years since the 1978 Symposium on the Application of Short-Term Bioassays in the Fractionation and Analysis of Complex Environmental Mixtures the use of short-term bioassays to evaluate potential health hazards of complex environmental mixtures has substantially increased. Increased research activity has been particularly noticeable in mobile source emissions, where initial observations on the mutagenic activity of diesel particulate extracts reported at the 1978 symposium stimulated the development of major research programs in government and industry. In the absence of appropriate reference materials, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated comparative genotoxicity studies to determine the relative mutagenic and carcinogenic activity and, ultimately, the potential human health risk due to exposure to various complex emission products. Among the materials investigated were those of known health risk, such as coke oven and roofing tar emissions and cigarette smoke condensates, and those of unknown hazard, such as exhaust from diesel-and gasoline-powered vehicles. Studies on diesel emission products proved useful in short­ term bioassay development, as the diesel exhaust extracts were genetically active with low cellular toxicity and could be obtained in relatively large quantities. Availability of such samples aided chemical characterization, and it was eventually determined that the nitro-polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were among the mutagenic components of diesel exhaust particulate.

Keywords

Potential environment environmental protection health research toxicity

Editors and affiliations

  • Michael D. Waters
    • 1
  • Shahbeg S. Sandhu
    • 1
  • Joellen Lewtas
    • 1
  • Larry Claxton
    • 1
  • Neil Chernoff
    • 1
  • Stephen Nesnow
    • 1
  1. 1.U. S. Environmental Protection AgencyResearch Triangle ParkUSA

Bibliographic information