Table of contents
About this book
For several years now scientific and medical sLaff have recognised the risks of toxicity of certain metals contained in alloys used in Lhe manufacture of biomaterials protheses, implants, and artificial organs. A number or scientific and industrial research centres have focussed their investigations in this direction and international societies and commissions have organised meetings with specialists from complementary disciplines in attendance in attempts to guage the importance of biological risks and to determine the toxicity of certain metals, with the aim of establishing preventive measures and guidelines. In the last century great efforts have been made to reduce unwanted biological effects caused by orthopaedic implants. The problems of pain and infection were overcome and the development of modern technology has resulted in a convincing decrease in corrosion problems and mechanical failure, such that ostosynthesis and endoprosthesis have rapidly progressed beyond the level of tentative investingation.llowever, a number of problems still remain to be solved, such as the influence of the material type on the healing process and its relative speed. The increasing use of cobalt-,chromium-and nickel-containing alloys in surgical and dental implants has raised various questions concerning the biological consequences of chronic internal release of these elements in the human body. A total of 55 delegates representing 16 countries heard presentations of fundamental aspects, local and remote tissue response, immunopathology, clinical aspects, and manufacturing qual ity control issues.
Implantat biomaterial chromium control corrosion development infection manufacturing metals plants research risk surgery technology tissue