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Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis

A Text for Biologists, Materials Scientists, and Geologists

  • Joseph I. Goldstein
  • Dale E. Newbury
  • Patrick Echlin
  • David C. Joy
  • A. D. RomigJr.
  • Charles E. Lyman
  • Charles Fiori
  • Eric Lifshin

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xviii
  2. Joseph I. Goldstein, Dale E. Newbury, Patrick Echlin, David C. Joy, A. D. Romig Jr., Charles E. Lyman et al.
    Pages 1-19
  3. Joseph I. Goldstein, Dale E. Newbury, Patrick Echlin, David C. Joy, A. D. Romig Jr., Charles E. Lyman et al.
    Pages 21-68
  4. Joseph I. Goldstein, Dale E. Newbury, Patrick Echlin, David C. Joy, A. D. Romig Jr., Charles E. Lyman et al.
    Pages 69-147
  5. Joseph I. Goldstein, Dale E. Newbury, Patrick Echlin, David C. Joy, A. D. Romig Jr., Charles E. Lyman et al.
    Pages 149-271
  6. Joseph I. Goldstein, Dale E. Newbury, Patrick Echlin, David C. Joy, A. D. Romig Jr., Charles E. Lyman et al.
    Pages 273-339
  7. Joseph I. Goldstein, Dale E. Newbury, Patrick Echlin, David C. Joy, A. D. Romig Jr., Charles E. Lyman et al.
    Pages 341-364
  8. Joseph I. Goldstein, Dale E. Newbury, Patrick Echlin, David C. Joy, A. D. Romig Jr., Charles E. Lyman et al.
    Pages 365-393
  9. Joseph I. Goldstein, Dale E. Newbury, Patrick Echlin, David C. Joy, A. D. Romig Jr., Charles E. Lyman et al.
    Pages 395-416
  10. Joseph I. Goldstein, Dale E. Newbury, Patrick Echlin, David C. Joy, A. D. Romig Jr., Charles E. Lyman et al.
    Pages 417-523
  11. Joseph I. Goldstein, Dale E. Newbury, Patrick Echlin, David C. Joy, A. D. Romig Jr., Charles E. Lyman et al.
    Pages 525-545
  12. Joseph I. Goldstein, Dale E. Newbury, Patrick Echlin, David C. Joy, A. D. Romig Jr., Charles E. Lyman et al.
    Pages 547-570
  13. Joseph I. Goldstein, Dale E. Newbury, Patrick Echlin, David C. Joy, A. D. Romig Jr., Charles E. Lyman et al.
    Pages 571-670
  14. Joseph I. Goldstein, Dale E. Newbury, Patrick Echlin, David C. Joy, A. D. Romig Jr., Charles E. Lyman et al.
    Pages 671-740
  15. Joseph I. Goldstein, Dale E. Newbury, Patrick Echlin, David C. Joy, A. D. Romig Jr., Charles E. Lyman et al.
    Pages 741-785
  16. Back Matter
    Pages 787-820

About this book

Introduction

In the last decade, since the publication of the first edition of Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis, there has been a great expansion in the capabilities of the basic SEM and EPMA. High­ resolution imaging has been developed with the aid of an extensive range of field emission gun (FEG) microscopes. The magnification ranges of these instruments now overlap those of the transmission electron microscope. Low-voltage microscopy using the FEG now allows for the observation of noncoated samples. In addition, advances in the develop­ ment of x-ray wavelength and energy dispersive spectrometers allow for the measurement of low-energy x-rays, particularly from the light elements (B, C, N, 0). In the area of x-ray microanalysis, great advances have been made, particularly with the "phi rho z" [Ij)(pz)] technique for solid samples, and with other quantitation methods for thin films, particles, rough surfaces, and the light elements. In addition, x-ray imaging has advanced from the conventional technique of "dot mapping" to the method of quantitative compositional imaging. Beyond this, new software has allowed the development of much more meaningful displays for both imaging and quantitative analysis results and the capability for integrating the data to obtain specific information such as precipitate size, chemical analysis in designated areas or along specific directions, and local chemical inhomogeneities.

Keywords

Hydra X-ray development electron microscopy microscopy

Authors and affiliations

  • Joseph I. Goldstein
    • 1
  • Dale E. Newbury
    • 2
  • Patrick Echlin
    • 3
  • David C. Joy
    • 4
  • A. D. RomigJr.
    • 5
  • Charles E. Lyman
    • 1
  • Charles Fiori
    • 2
  • Eric Lifshin
    • 6
  1. 1.Lehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA
  2. 2.National Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburgUSA
  3. 3.University of CambridgeCambridgeEngland
  4. 4.University of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  5. 5.Sandia National LaboratoriesAlbuquerqueUSA
  6. 6.General Electric Corporate Research and DevelopmentSchenectadyUSA

Bibliographic information