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Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis Testing

  • J. F. Douglas

Part of the Contemporary Biomedicine book series (CB, volume 4)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xviii
  2. The Fundamental Biology

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Mutagenesis and Other Short-Term Tests

      1. S. R. Haworth
        Pages 3-6
      2. David J. Brusick
        Pages 7-16
      3. David J. Brusick
        Pages 17-38
      4. John O. Rundell
        Pages 39-62
      5. R. J. M. Fry, H. P. Witschi
        Pages 63-78
      6. D. J. Koropatnick, J. J. Berman
        Pages 79-86
    3. Carcinogenesis

  3. Practical Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis Assay Methodology

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 183-183
    2. Gene Mutation Assays

      1. S. R. Haworth
        Pages 185-197
      2. David J. Brusick
        Pages 199-205
      3. Paul E. Kirby
        Pages 207-226
      4. David J. Brusick
        Pages 227-233
      5. David J. Brusick
        Pages 235-242
    3. DNA Damage and Repair Assays

      1. David J. Brusick
        Pages 243-250
      2. David J. Brusick
        Pages 251-262
    4. Cytogenetic Assays

      1. David J. Brusick
        Pages 263-276
    5. Transformation Assays

    6. Short-Term In Vivo Carcinogenesis Assays

      1. L. H. Smith, H. P. Witschi
        Pages 301-312
      2. D. J. Koropatnick, J. J. Berman
        Pages 313-319
    7. Conduct of Carcinogen Bioassays

      1. J. F. Douglas
        Pages 321-331
  4. Back Matter
    Pages 333-335

About this book

Introduction

Cancer has become the most critical health problem in the United States. It is expected that 25% of the people will develop this dread disease, and many of these will die from the malady. The causes of cancer are varied, but the best estimate available is that 70--90% arise from environmental factors. These statistics have triggered widespread governmental action along two lines: (l) An effort to identify those chemicals and conditions that give rise to malignant processes has been mounted by the Carcino­ genesis Testing Program, the National Cancer Program, and subse­ quently, the National Toxicology Program. (2) Regulatory laws have been enacted that are administered by agencies such as TSCA, FIFRA, EPA, FDA, OSHA, and so on, whose mission is to minimize public ex­ posure to carcinogens. Since direct verification that specific chemicals induce cancer in hu­ of unanticipated expo­ mans is necessarily limited to known incidences sure and is therefore rare, most chemicals are identified as carcinogens only by laboratory experiments. At present, the only accepted procedure is long-term animal bioassay, and not only are these studies expensive and time-consuming, but current worldwide resources permit the evalua­ tion of only 300-400 chemicals per year, a miniscule amount compared to what is available in the commercial world: 30,000 existing chemicals, with approximately 700 new such materials being introduced every year.

Keywords

biology cancer cell embryo genetics lymphoma mutation pathogenesis screening tissue toxicology tumor

Editors and affiliations

  • J. F. Douglas
    • 1
  1. 1.Scientific Services Inc.Front RoyalUSA

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